Today’s LDCs are usually countries that had been colonised before (colonies)
Example of Colonial Power: Portugal
Example of colony: Angola
Angola had suitable climate and soil conditions to grow cotton, coffee and cocoa.
Portugal took over Angola and used the land to grow these cash crops
First they sold them as they were and made money, then processed them to make clothes and sold them and made EVEN MORE money!
But Angola was left behind and did not catch up in terms of development
BUT EXCEPTIONS exist!
UK colonised Singapore before
UK now a DC but Singapore is NOT a LDC
Singapore had other factors encouraging our development like a good government, strategic location, hardworking people, and so on. So we have also caught up with our colonial power, UK! YIPPPEEE
Presence of Raw Materials
Norway is a DC because it has timber and crude oil which can be made into furniture and petrol respectively so this can cause it to develop faster than other countries with few or no natural resources/raw materials
Money earned from selling the raw materials can be used to build roads, hospitals, etc and so improve the people’s S/L and Q/L.
BUT EXCEPTIONS exist!
Nigeria has LOTS of raw materials but it is still a LDC – WHY?
Read page 186 to find out reason
Singapore has almost NO raw materials but we are highly developed – WOW!
Climate pg 187
DCs usually found in temperate climate zones, experiencing low to moderate temperatures and moderate rainfall
LDCs usually found in tropical climate zone, experiencing high temperatures and low seasonal rainfall
Is there is a correlation?
That is, DOES climate affect development?
Yes, to some extent …
Cool and moist climates (found in DCs) are suitable for growing many crops like wheat and oat which can be sold to make money for the country
High temperatures and low rainfall result in drought and so insufficient water means few crops can be grown, so major source of income is lost for LDCs
Floods also common in LDCs because they lack money to control them, and floods wipe out many farms and infrastructure pg 188
BUT EXCEPTIONS exist!
Netherlands is prone to floods BUT the successful Zuider Zee Project (remember Sec 2 geog?) has controlled the floods and the land is used to grow crops that bring in A LOT of money for Netherlands!
Technology can also allow greenhouses to be built and irrigation to be carried out so climate can be controlled
So if you have the money, you can overcome climatic problems using technology! Unfortunately, LDCs don’t have this kind of $
It refers to the process of how the movement of people and resources from the periphery area increases the wealth of the core area
The RICH get RICHER!
Do you understand? Let’s try to explain
Core Area Gets Richer
You are a businessmen and you sell mobile phones. Would you rather open up your shop in the city (core) area where there are many people who will buy your phones or in the village (periphery) where people are poorer?
Of course, the city if you want to make $!
Now, imagine ALL the businessmen think like that, everyone opens up their businesses in the city, this attracts even more workers to the city because they can find jobs there SO
CITY gets better and better but the
VILLAGES get poorer and poorer
because everyone is going to the cities to
work since all the opportunities are in the
This effect where the periphery areas get POORER and POORER because people and raw materials are going to the city is called
The Backwash Effect
But its not all gloom and doom for the periphery areas LAH!
Governments sometimes purposely encourage industries to go to the poorer areas to set up, or governments of poorer countries encourage industries to set up in their countries by offering them benefits like cash, etc
This effect where money and knowledge gets transferred from the core/rich areas to the periphery/poor areas is called
The Spread Effect
Let’s Test Ourselves!
The Phenomenon of Brain-Drain, where Indian doctors move from India (LDC/Periphery) to work in countries like Singapore (DC/core), is called
Backwash OR spread effect?
If I decide to go to my hometown in Malaysia, a small town called Segamat where I was born, and decide to open up a school employing about 20 local teachers, what effect am I generating?
DCs have a higher literacy rate than LDCs, and so with more people being able to read and write, more people will work in secondary and tertiary industries and these are the industries that usually bring in more money for the country (S/L) so it becomes more developed!
Wars and instability have discouraged industries from setting up in countries and tourists from visiting the countries and this has reduced money coming in for these countries, slowing down their development
So, countries which often have wars and are unstable/unsafe stay less developed
Example is Sierra Leone pg 195
Countries with effective, corrupt-free governments tend to develop quickly
LOOK at SINGAPORE! We developed so quickly after the British left because the PAP government is a very responsible and intelligent one. Why do I say that???
Responsible: uses citizen’s money to improve their lives (Q/L) Intelligent: attracts tourists, foreign investments because it will increase our S/L
That’s All Folks for Chapter 9!
Wah, so easy ah?!
Now, read Chapter 10 first, on your own, before we start studying it!