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GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
 

GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy

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This is my presentation for the GP3 Group Piano & Piano Pedagogy Conference taking place August 6th in Austin, Texas. I will be presenting the results of 2 pilot studies in preparation for my ...

This is my presentation for the GP3 Group Piano & Piano Pedagogy Conference taking place August 6th in Austin, Texas. I will be presenting the results of 2 pilot studies in preparation for my dissertation. This research focuses on the pianist's transition into the teaching role including challenges they face, solutions/resources they find, reflections and suggestions for the future.

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    GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy Presentation Transcript

    • Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy: Challenges, Solutions, Reflections, and Suggestions for the Future Melissa M. Slawsky, Ph.D. Candidate Center for Music Education Research, University of South Florida
    • Background *B.M. piano- Florida Southern College *M.M. piano pedagogy- Univ. of S. Florida *Ph.D. music education- Univ. of S. Florida Performance  Pedagogy  Research
    • Introduction Standard teacher-training program- *Educational coursework *Observations of experienced teachers *Fieldwork experience/internships *Supervised student teaching *Mentored when entering the field Induction- 1-3 year years *sensitive and impressionable period *much research exists
    • Piano Teacher Training A very different framework- *Master-apprentice model *Years of private study *Piano Pedagogy Coursework *Limited support when transitioning to the teaching role
    • The Field
      • *Lack of consistent guidelines and/or standards (Jacobson & Lancaster, 2006)
      • *Professional development is not mandated (Heisler, 1995; Jacobson & Lancaster, 2006)
      • *Quality of instruction is unchecked and uncontrolled (Heisler, 1995; Wolfersberger, 1986)
      • *Piano teachers operate independently of professional structures (Jacobson & Lancaster, 2006)
    • Master-Apprentice Model
      • “ The master is the model who demonstrates, directs, comments and inspires and the apprentice is the disciple who watches, listens, imitates and seeks approval’. This is still a powerful universal motivating force particularly in conservatoires. It is also a firmly established model for the teaching of music in many private music studios” (Uszler, Gordon, & Mach, 1993, p.584).
    • Master-Apprentice Model?
      • An apprenticing electrician studies with an electrician to become an electrician
      • An apprenticing pianist studies with a piano teacher to become a pianist (performer)
      • (Then has to learn how to teach)
    • Research problem
      • How do pianists make the transition from student to teacher?
    • Cognitive Apprenticeship
      • Merges apprenticeship with formal training
      • Experiences are articulated
      • Increased independence
      • Create authentic experiences
      • Provide expert models
      • Opportunities for collaboration
    • Piano Pedagogy Guidelines
      • National Conference on Keyboard Pedagogy’s Task Force on Pedagogy Curricula (2004)
      • NASM guidelines cited
      • Recommended-
      • Pedagogical coursework
      • Observations of experienced teachers
      • A supervised internship
    • Implementation Challenges
      • “ Financial limitations ”
      • (Fu, 2007; Uszler & Larimer, 1984)
      • “ Faculty acquisition”
      • (Fu, 2007; Uszler & Larimer, 1984)
      • “ Space, equipment, and library resources”
      • (Uszler & Larimer, 1984, p.12)
      • Administration (Uszler & Larimer, 1984)
      • Advocating for piano pedagogy
    • An Uphill Battle
      • Piano pedagogy is not valued by some institutions
      • Tension between roles as performers and teachers
    • Purpose
      • Explore how piano teachers learn to teach from and independent of piano pedagogy coursework,
      • - overcome challenges , and
      • - continue to add to their pedagogy knowledge
    • Purpose (continued)
      • b. Explore topics that would be most useful in a p i a n o p e d a g o g y course or program
    • Qualitative Approach
      • Phenomenology
      • “… there is an essence or essences to shared experience” (Patton, 2002, p. 106).
      • Heuristic Inquiry
      • " . . In heuristic research the investigator must have had a direct, personal encounter with the phenomenon being investigated. There must have been actual autobiographical connections” (Moustakas, 1990, p. 14)
    • Research Questions
      • How do piano teachers make the transition from student to teacher?
      • a. What challenges do they face?
      • b. What solutions/resources do they find?
      • c. What learning experiences (formal and informal) helped prepare them?
    • Research Questions
      • 2. What current challenges do piano teachers face?
      • a. What solutions/resources do they find to overcome these challenges?
    • Research Questions
      • 3. What do piano teachers suggest for the future of:
      • a. piano pedagogy
      • b. the piano curriculum, in general?
    • Closely Aligned Literature
      • Colleen Conway- Music Education
      • Dissertation:
      • Interviewed preservice music educators
      • Goal- inform music methods courses
    • Induction Challenges
      • Challenges included:
      • a. Classroom management
      • b. Routines for Learning
      • c. Finding & choosing a curriculum
      • d. Re-establishment when moving to a new school
      • e. Advocating for music education
      • (Conway & Hodgman, 2006)
    • Implications for Beginning Music Educators
      • Handbook for the Beginning Music Teacher
      • (Conway & Hodgman, 2006)
    • Implications for Mentors & Administrators
      • Great Beginnings for Music Teachers: Mentoring and Supporting New Teachers (Conway & MENC, 2003)
    • Implications
      • By studying the transition from student to teacher, Conway informed:
      • a variety of music educators
      • (from students to administrators)
      • The framework for teacher education
      • The field for which they will be entering
    • Haddon (2009)
      • Studied the experiences of the beginning applied music instrumental instructor:
      • Commented on lack of support & pedagogical training in the UK
      • Interviewed undergraduate instrumentalists ( N= 16)
      • Only 1 had formal training in teaching
    • Haddon (2009)
      • Instrumentalists listed several challenges faced including:
      • communication with students and parents
      • balancing student, teacher, and parent expectations regarding repertoire, pace, and progress
      • “ maintaining teacher-authority[,] and
      • achieving a balance between fun and
      • discipline” (p. 66).
    • Haddon (2009)
      • Teaching developed through instinct and experience
      • Influence of past teachers and materials
      • Unaware of training opportunities and pedagogical literature
    • Haddon (2009)
      • Recommended that pedagogical training be increased
      • Support through mentoring programs
    • Pedagogical Coursework
      • Often the only teacher-training experience
      • It is critical that these courses are relevant and effective
    • Piano Pedagogy
      • Relatively new (100 years or so)
      • Developed during a period of much social change
      • Increasing in colleges and universities (Fu, 2007; HEADS, 2007)
    • Relevance & Effectiveness
      • Schons (2005)-
      • Surveys ( N= 598)
      • MTNA mailing list
      • Pedagogy Topic Recommendations:
      • Teaching advanced,
      • learning disabled,
      • pre-school, and
      • adult hobby students
    • Pedagogy Topics
      • Schons (2005)-
      • Pedagogy Topic Recommendations:
      • Technology
      • Business practices
      • Professional resources
      • Group lessons
      • Sustaining a viable living
    • Contradictory Findings
      • Sumpter (2008)-
      • Surveys ( N= 298)
      • MTNA mailing list
      • Ranked as most important-
      • Traditional aspects
      • Ranked least important:
      • Improvisation
      • Computer-assisted instruction
      • Jazz and rock music
    • Irony
      • Participants age 55 and above
      • 30 years of teaching experience
      • MTNA mailing lists
    • Method
      • Phase 1 & 2-
      • Semi-structured interviews
      • Conducted over the phone
      • Interview transcribed
      • Coded
    • The Interview Guide
      • 22 questions:
      • Piano teachers asked about:
      • Demographics & studio set-up
      • Transition into the teaching role
      • Challenges, Solutions
      • Current Challenges & Solutions
      • Reflections & Suggestions for the future
    • Participants
      • Phase 1-
      40+ Collegiate studio D.M.A. piano 65 Dr. Autumn Van Arden 25 Private studio M.M. piano pedagogy 70 Susan Liszt 10 Private studio M.M. piano 28 Lisa Crawford 3 Private studio B.M. in progress 21 Thomas Chang Teaching experience Teaching setting Education Age Participant
    • Participants
      • Phase 2-
      12 Private studio B.A., B.M. M.A. in progress 29 Chelsea Ash 13 Private studio B.M. 29 Ellen Page 5 Private studio M.M. 24 Caitlyn Smith 3 Private studio M.M. 28 Sarah Ford Teaching experience Teaching setting Education Age Participant
    • Synthesizing the Data Student Applied lessons Coursework Circumstances that led to teach Transition Emulate + ____ (developing teaching style) Challenges Resources Teacher Current challenges Resources Reflections & suggestions for the future
    • Applied Lessons
      • Piano teachers took an average of 12.5 yrs. of piano lessons before embarking on teaching.
      • 4 taught in high school
      • 4 taught before or during graduate study
    • Pedagogy Coursework
      • Coursework in Piano Pedagogy:
      • 4 took 1 undergraduate course
      • 4 took graduate courses
      • (1 had 1 course, and 3 had 2 courses)
    • Circumstances that led to teach
      • Piano teachers listed several reasons including:
      • 4 were asked to teach
      • 2 were required to teach for graduate study
      • 1 self-motivated during high school
      • 1 obtained employment during college
    • Transition: Emulating former private teachers
      • Piano teachers:
      • Emulated positive aspects:
      • *standards
      • *routines
      • *communication of ideas to students
      • *techniques of tone production
    • Transition: Emulating former private teachers
      • Piano teachers:
      • Took the positive aspects
      • Left out negative or counterproductive aspects
    • Transition: Emulating former private teachers
      • Piano teachers:
      • Developed teaching style based on what other teachers left out or neglected in the piano curriculum
    • Transition: Emulating former private teachers
      • Piano teachers:
      • Developed teaching style in OPPOSITION to former teachers
    • Developing Teaching Style
      • Emulate former teachers + _____________
      • (in developing teaching style)
    • Other Aspects in Developing Teaching Style
      • Participants also used lateral knowledge drawn from other musical experiences:
      • Conducting- score study
      • Violin- tone production, phrasing, breathing
      • Ensemble playing (contributing to polyphonic music)
    • Other Aspects in Developing Teaching Style
      • Participants also used lateral knowledge drawn from other musical experiences:
      • Vocal study/Singing
      • Practical Skills
      • Eclectic Mix
    • Challenges faced in beginning to teach:
      • No curriculum
      • (Choosing methods, technique & theory books, and literature)
      • No guidance or support
      • Dealing with discipline or behavioral problems
      • Enforcing policies
      • Acquiring new students
      • Not knowing what to do…
    • Not knowing what to do…
      • Lack of education on how to teach:
      • “ I had not studied how to teach, only how to play, and had no guidance at that time from experienced teachers… I had to teach myself how to teach” (Susan Liszt).
      • “ I wish there were more resources to prepare me in teaching music, rather than just picking it up on my own and learning as I go, and getting it from other people” (Thomas Chang).
    • Overcoming Challenges as Beginning Teachers
      • Gained more experience
      • (trial and error)
      • Reading
      • *Composer treatises
      • *Resources on performing different styles
    • Overcoming Challenges as Beginning Teachers
      • Discussed issues with other teachers
      • Developed professionalism
      • *Joined professional organizations
      • *Went to college
      • Improved communication skills
      • Gained skills in recruiting additional students
    • Current Challenges
      • Transitioning students from method books into intermediate repertoire
      • Time management-
      • Cramming everything into a 30 minute lesson
    • Current Challenges
      • Helping students develop an individual style of playing
      • Sustaining motivation
      • Competing with other activities
      • Students and/or parents don’t value the piano as a serious endeavor (hobby)
      • The economy
    • Current Challenges
      • New populations of students:
      • Preschool aged
      • Special needs
      • Adult hobbyists
    • Solutions or Resources in Overcoming Current Challenges
      • Discussing issues with friends and colleagues
      • New forms of advertising
      • On-line music resources for pop music and other motivating music for students
    • Solutions or Resources in Overcoming Current Challenges
      • Fake books or methods to help students play by ear
      • Taking an eclectic approach for individually tailoring the curriculum to the needs of each student.
    • Piano Pedagogy Coursework- Helpful Aspects
      • (7 of the 8 participants had at least 1 undergraduate and 1 graduate course in piano pedagogy)
      • A forum to discuss experiences with peers and experienced teachers
      • Writing lists of literature & exams appropriate for various ages or levels
      • Developing a curriculum for a group college course
    • Piano Pedagogy Coursework- Helpful Aspects
      • (7 of the 8 participants had at least 1 undergraduate and 1 graduate course in piano pedagogy)
      • Writing a philosophy of teaching
      • Surveying method books
      • Developing a studio policy
      • Observations of experienced teachers
    • Piano Pedagogy Coursework- Helpful Aspects
      • (7 of the 8 participants had at least 1 undergraduate and 1 graduate course in piano pedagogy)
      • Setting up a piano studio
      • Practicing in editing and composing teaching pieces
    • Aspects teachers felt ill-equipped to teach from pedagogy coursework
      • Intermediate-advanced level students
      • Special populations of students
      • *Pre-reading/Pre-school age
      • *Special-needs
      • *mature adult hobbyists
    • Aspects teachers felt ill-equipped to teach from pedagogy coursework
      • Dealing with students as individuals
      • New forms of advertising and the business aspects of setting up a piano studio (taxes, etc…)
      • Non notation-based teaching methods (improvisation, playing by ear, etc…)
    • Piano Pedagogy Coursework Ineffective Aspects
      • Inauthentic teaching or observation experiences
      • “ The class at (omitted) was hilarious because I was assigned to teach (in front of the entire class) a “student” (actually my boyfriend who was also a piano major) a piece of music. It was silly – like being in a play…it was sort of like play-acting. It was just sort of silly. It wasn’t real” (Susan Liszt)
    • Desired pedagogy topics
      • Hands-on teaching
      • Taxes
      • Record keeping
      • Advertising
      • Improvising, playing by ear
    • Desired pedagogy topics
      • Child development
      • Child behavior
      • Psychology & Learning theories
      • (e.g., Gordon)
      • How to approach different types of learners
      • *students with disabilities
    • Desired pedagogy topics
      • New populations of students
      • *Pre-school
      • *Special-needs
      • *Adult Hobbyists
      • Observations of professional teachers
      • Different approaches to technique
    • Teachers: Reflections on time spent in college
      • 2 participants said they felt there was little to no difference
      • 6 participants felt there was a substantial difference
    • Teachers: Reflections on time spent in college
      • Vast difference:
      • Focus on performance
      • ‘ Classical’ Repertoire
    • Teachers: Reflections on time spent in college
      • Piano teachers satisfied with education:
      • Had previous teaching experience
      • Taught during their education
      • Did not depend on the curriculum to give them all of their knowledge
    • Suggestions for the Future of Piano Pedagogy
      • Piano pedagogy should be required of all performance majors
      • Good performers do not always make good teachers
      • Pedagogy knowledge contributed to performance
      • Included at the undergraduate level as well
    • Suggestions as to the Future of Piano Pedagogy
      • Business Skills:
      • Accounting
      • Tax preparation
      • Advertising & Marketing
    • Suggestions as to the Future of Piano Pedagogy
      • Piano lessons should allow students to make independent decisions, such as choosing repertoire or harmonizing familiar tunes
      • Improvisation
      • Technology
    • And the Piano Curriculum in General…
      • More time on pedagogy, less on preparing for recitals
      • Even performers need business skills
    • Future Research
      • Dissertation
      • Large scale survey
      • Follow-up Interviews
    • References
      • Chronister, R. (2001). The National Conferences on Piano Pedagogy: Whither and Wherefore. American Music Teacher, 50(5), 30-34.
      • Conway, C. M. (1999). The development of teaching cases for instrumental music methods courses. Journal of Research in Music Education 47 (4), 343-356.
      • Conway, C. M. & Hodgman, T. M. (2006). Handbook for the beginning music teacher. Chicago, IL: GIA Publications, Inc.
      • Conway, C. M. & MENC, The National Association for Music Education. (2003).
      • Great beginnings for music teachers: Mentoring and supporting new teachers. Reston, VA: MENC, the National Association for Music Education.
      • Fu, H. C. (2007). A status and vision investigation of US university piano pedagogy
      • programs (Doctoral dissertation, University of North Texas, 2007).
      • Gordon, S., Mach, E., & Uszler, M. (1991). The well-tempered keyboard teacher .
      • New York: Schirmer Books.
      • Gray, M. E. (1998). Teacher or performer: Role identification among piano majors. (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Oklahoma, 1998). Digital Dissertations, 59 (04), 1104.
      • Haddon, E. (2009). Instrumental and vocal teaching: How do music students learn how to teach? British Journal of Music Education, 26 (1), 57-70.
    • References (continued)
      • Heisler, P. K. (1995). A theoretical comparison of certified piano teachers’ claim to
      • professional status with the sociological definition of profession. International
      • Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music 26 (2), 239-249.
      • Houle, A. (2004). 5 minutes with… Marienne Uszler. American Music Teacher, 54 (2), 65.
      • Jacobson, J. M., & Lancaster, E. L. (2006). Professional piano teaching: A
      • comprehensive piano pedagogy textbook for teaching elementary-level students . Los Angeles: Alfred Publishing.
      • Maris, B.E. (2000). Teacher training for the pianist in preparation for the 21st century. The American Music Teacher , 49 (6), 33.
      • MENC (2010). Society for music teacher education: Professional literature project .
      • George N. Heller (Ed.), Retrieved May 31, 2010 at http:// www.menc.org/
      • resources/view/society-for-music-teacher-education-professional-literature- project
      • Music Teachers National Association. (1990). Pedagogic training of music teachers: A
      • survey report. Cincinnati, OH: Author.
    • References (continued)
      • NASM, National Association of Schools of Music. (2007). Higher Education Arts Data
      • Services (HEADS): Music Data Summaries (2006-2007). Reston, VA: HEADS
      • National Conference on Keyboard Pedagogy. (2004). Task Force on Pedagogy Curricula. Retrieved June 22, 2010 from http:// www.francesclarkcenter.org/
      • NationalConferencePages/resources/curriculumResources.html
      • Schons, S.M. (2005) Piano teachers’ attitudes on piano pedagogy course topics.
      • (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Oklahoma, 2005.)
      • Sumpter, T. L. (2008). Professional status and the independent piano teaching
      • occupation: A study and analysis of demographics, training, business policies,
      • and studio practices (Doctoral dissertation, University of Oklahoma, 2008).
      • Uszler, M. (1993). Research on the teaching of keyboard music. In R. Colwell (Ed.), Handbook of research on music teaching and learning: A project of the music educators national conference (pp. 584-93). New York: Schirmer Books.
    • References (continued)
      • Uszler, M., & Larimer, F. (1984). The piano pedagogy major in the college curriculum: A handbook of information and guidelines. Part I: The
      • undergraduate piano pedagogy major. Princeton, NJ: The National Conference on Piano Pedagogy.
      • Uszler, M., & Larimer, F. (1986). The piano pedagogy major in the college
      • curriculum: A handbook of information and guidelines. Part II: The graduate
      • piano pedagogy major. Princeton, NJ: The National Conference on Piano
      • Pedagogy.