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GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
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GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy

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This is my presentation for the GP3 Group Piano & Piano Pedagogy Conference taking place August 6th in Austin, Texas. I will be presenting the results of 2 pilot studies in preparation for my …

This is my presentation for the GP3 Group Piano & Piano Pedagogy Conference taking place August 6th in Austin, Texas. I will be presenting the results of 2 pilot studies in preparation for my dissertation. This research focuses on the pianist's transition into the teaching role including challenges they face, solutions/resources they find, reflections and suggestions for the future.

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  • 1. Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy: Challenges, Solutions, Reflections, and Suggestions for the Future Melissa M. Slawsky, Ph.D. Candidate Center for Music Education Research, University of South Florida
  • 2. Background *B.M. piano- Florida Southern College *M.M. piano pedagogy- Univ. of S. Florida *Ph.D. music education- Univ. of S. Florida Performance  Pedagogy  Research
  • 3. Introduction Standard teacher-training program- *Educational coursework *Observations of experienced teachers *Fieldwork experience/internships *Supervised student teaching *Mentored when entering the field Induction- 1-3 year years *sensitive and impressionable period *much research exists
  • 4. Piano Teacher Training A very different framework- *Master-apprentice model *Years of private study *Piano Pedagogy Coursework *Limited support when transitioning to the teaching role
  • 5. The Field
    • *Lack of consistent guidelines and/or standards (Jacobson & Lancaster, 2006)
    • *Professional development is not mandated (Heisler, 1995; Jacobson & Lancaster, 2006)
    • *Quality of instruction is unchecked and uncontrolled (Heisler, 1995; Wolfersberger, 1986)
    • *Piano teachers operate independently of professional structures (Jacobson & Lancaster, 2006)
  • 6. Master-Apprentice Model
    • “ The master is the model who demonstrates, directs, comments and inspires and the apprentice is the disciple who watches, listens, imitates and seeks approval’. This is still a powerful universal motivating force particularly in conservatoires. It is also a firmly established model for the teaching of music in many private music studios” (Uszler, Gordon, & Mach, 1993, p.584).
  • 7. Master-Apprentice Model?
    • An apprenticing electrician studies with an electrician to become an electrician
    • An apprenticing pianist studies with a piano teacher to become a pianist (performer)
    • (Then has to learn how to teach)
  • 8. Research problem
    • How do pianists make the transition from student to teacher?
  • 9. Cognitive Apprenticeship
    • Merges apprenticeship with formal training
    • Experiences are articulated
    • Increased independence
    • Create authentic experiences
    • Provide expert models
    • Opportunities for collaboration
  • 10. Piano Pedagogy Guidelines
    • National Conference on Keyboard Pedagogy’s Task Force on Pedagogy Curricula (2004)
    • NASM guidelines cited
    • Recommended-
    • Pedagogical coursework
    • Observations of experienced teachers
    • A supervised internship
  • 11. Implementation Challenges
    • “ Financial limitations ”
    • (Fu, 2007; Uszler & Larimer, 1984)
    • “ Faculty acquisition”
    • (Fu, 2007; Uszler & Larimer, 1984)
    • “ Space, equipment, and library resources”
    • (Uszler & Larimer, 1984, p.12)
    • Administration (Uszler & Larimer, 1984)
    • Advocating for piano pedagogy
  • 12. An Uphill Battle
    • Piano pedagogy is not valued by some institutions
    • Tension between roles as performers and teachers
  • 13. Purpose
    • Explore how piano teachers learn to teach from and independent of piano pedagogy coursework,
    • - overcome challenges , and
    • - continue to add to their pedagogy knowledge
  • 14. Purpose (continued)
    • b. Explore topics that would be most useful in a p i a n o p e d a g o g y course or program
  • 15. Qualitative Approach
    • Phenomenology
    • “… there is an essence or essences to shared experience” (Patton, 2002, p. 106).
    • Heuristic Inquiry
    • " . . In heuristic research the investigator must have had a direct, personal encounter with the phenomenon being investigated. There must have been actual autobiographical connections” (Moustakas, 1990, p. 14)
  • 16. Research Questions
    • How do piano teachers make the transition from student to teacher?
    • a. What challenges do they face?
    • b. What solutions/resources do they find?
    • c. What learning experiences (formal and informal) helped prepare them?
  • 17. Research Questions
    • 2. What current challenges do piano teachers face?
    • a. What solutions/resources do they find to overcome these challenges?
  • 18. Research Questions
    • 3. What do piano teachers suggest for the future of:
    • a. piano pedagogy
    • b. the piano curriculum, in general?
  • 19. Closely Aligned Literature
    • Colleen Conway- Music Education
    • Dissertation:
    • Interviewed preservice music educators
    • Goal- inform music methods courses
  • 20. Induction Challenges
    • Challenges included:
    • a. Classroom management
    • b. Routines for Learning
    • c. Finding & choosing a curriculum
    • d. Re-establishment when moving to a new school
    • e. Advocating for music education
    • (Conway & Hodgman, 2006)
  • 21. Implications for Beginning Music Educators
    • Handbook for the Beginning Music Teacher
    • (Conway & Hodgman, 2006)
  • 22. Implications for Mentors & Administrators
    • Great Beginnings for Music Teachers: Mentoring and Supporting New Teachers (Conway & MENC, 2003)
  • 23. Implications
    • By studying the transition from student to teacher, Conway informed:
    • a variety of music educators
    • (from students to administrators)
    • The framework for teacher education
    • The field for which they will be entering
  • 24. Haddon (2009)
    • Studied the experiences of the beginning applied music instrumental instructor:
    • Commented on lack of support & pedagogical training in the UK
    • Interviewed undergraduate instrumentalists ( N= 16)
    • Only 1 had formal training in teaching
  • 25. Haddon (2009)
    • Instrumentalists listed several challenges faced including:
    • communication with students and parents
    • balancing student, teacher, and parent expectations regarding repertoire, pace, and progress
    • “ maintaining teacher-authority[,] and
    • achieving a balance between fun and
    • discipline” (p. 66).
  • 26. Haddon (2009)
    • Teaching developed through instinct and experience
    • Influence of past teachers and materials
    • Unaware of training opportunities and pedagogical literature
  • 27. Haddon (2009)
    • Recommended that pedagogical training be increased
    • Support through mentoring programs
  • 28. Pedagogical Coursework
    • Often the only teacher-training experience
    • It is critical that these courses are relevant and effective
  • 29. Piano Pedagogy
    • Relatively new (100 years or so)
    • Developed during a period of much social change
    • Increasing in colleges and universities (Fu, 2007; HEADS, 2007)
  • 30. Relevance & Effectiveness
    • Schons (2005)-
    • Surveys ( N= 598)
    • MTNA mailing list
    • Pedagogy Topic Recommendations:
    • Teaching advanced,
    • learning disabled,
    • pre-school, and
    • adult hobby students
  • 31. Pedagogy Topics
    • Schons (2005)-
    • Pedagogy Topic Recommendations:
    • Technology
    • Business practices
    • Professional resources
    • Group lessons
    • Sustaining a viable living
  • 32. Contradictory Findings
    • Sumpter (2008)-
    • Surveys ( N= 298)
    • MTNA mailing list
    • Ranked as most important-
    • Traditional aspects
    • Ranked least important:
    • Improvisation
    • Computer-assisted instruction
    • Jazz and rock music
  • 33. Irony
    • Participants age 55 and above
    • 30 years of teaching experience
    • MTNA mailing lists
  • 34. Method
    • Phase 1 & 2-
    • Semi-structured interviews
    • Conducted over the phone
    • Interview transcribed
    • Coded
  • 35. The Interview Guide
    • 22 questions:
    • Piano teachers asked about:
    • Demographics & studio set-up
    • Transition into the teaching role
    • Challenges, Solutions
    • Current Challenges & Solutions
    • Reflections & Suggestions for the future
  • 36. Participants
    • Phase 1-
    40+ Collegiate studio D.M.A. piano 65 Dr. Autumn Van Arden 25 Private studio M.M. piano pedagogy 70 Susan Liszt 10 Private studio M.M. piano 28 Lisa Crawford 3 Private studio B.M. in progress 21 Thomas Chang Teaching experience Teaching setting Education Age Participant
  • 37. Participants
    • Phase 2-
    12 Private studio B.A., B.M. M.A. in progress 29 Chelsea Ash 13 Private studio B.M. 29 Ellen Page 5 Private studio M.M. 24 Caitlyn Smith 3 Private studio M.M. 28 Sarah Ford Teaching experience Teaching setting Education Age Participant
  • 38. Synthesizing the Data Student Applied lessons Coursework Circumstances that led to teach Transition Emulate + ____ (developing teaching style) Challenges Resources Teacher Current challenges Resources Reflections & suggestions for the future
  • 39. Applied Lessons
    • Piano teachers took an average of 12.5 yrs. of piano lessons before embarking on teaching.
    • 4 taught in high school
    • 4 taught before or during graduate study
  • 40. Pedagogy Coursework
    • Coursework in Piano Pedagogy:
    • 4 took 1 undergraduate course
    • 4 took graduate courses
    • (1 had 1 course, and 3 had 2 courses)
  • 41. Circumstances that led to teach
    • Piano teachers listed several reasons including:
    • 4 were asked to teach
    • 2 were required to teach for graduate study
    • 1 self-motivated during high school
    • 1 obtained employment during college
  • 42. Transition: Emulating former private teachers
    • Piano teachers:
    • Emulated positive aspects:
    • *standards
    • *routines
    • *communication of ideas to students
    • *techniques of tone production
  • 43. Transition: Emulating former private teachers
    • Piano teachers:
    • Took the positive aspects
    • Left out negative or counterproductive aspects
  • 44. Transition: Emulating former private teachers
    • Piano teachers:
    • Developed teaching style based on what other teachers left out or neglected in the piano curriculum
  • 45. Transition: Emulating former private teachers
    • Piano teachers:
    • Developed teaching style in OPPOSITION to former teachers
  • 46. Developing Teaching Style
    • Emulate former teachers + _____________
    • (in developing teaching style)
  • 47. Other Aspects in Developing Teaching Style
    • Participants also used lateral knowledge drawn from other musical experiences:
    • Conducting- score study
    • Violin- tone production, phrasing, breathing
    • Ensemble playing (contributing to polyphonic music)
  • 48. Other Aspects in Developing Teaching Style
    • Participants also used lateral knowledge drawn from other musical experiences:
    • Vocal study/Singing
    • Practical Skills
    • Eclectic Mix
  • 49. Challenges faced in beginning to teach:
    • No curriculum
    • (Choosing methods, technique & theory books, and literature)
    • No guidance or support
    • Dealing with discipline or behavioral problems
    • Enforcing policies
    • Acquiring new students
    • Not knowing what to do…
  • 50. Not knowing what to do…
    • Lack of education on how to teach:
    • “ I had not studied how to teach, only how to play, and had no guidance at that time from experienced teachers… I had to teach myself how to teach” (Susan Liszt).
    • “ I wish there were more resources to prepare me in teaching music, rather than just picking it up on my own and learning as I go, and getting it from other people” (Thomas Chang).
  • 51. Overcoming Challenges as Beginning Teachers
    • Gained more experience
    • (trial and error)
    • Reading
    • *Composer treatises
    • *Resources on performing different styles
  • 52. Overcoming Challenges as Beginning Teachers
    • Discussed issues with other teachers
    • Developed professionalism
    • *Joined professional organizations
    • *Went to college
    • Improved communication skills
    • Gained skills in recruiting additional students
  • 53. Current Challenges
    • Transitioning students from method books into intermediate repertoire
    • Time management-
    • Cramming everything into a 30 minute lesson
  • 54. Current Challenges
    • Helping students develop an individual style of playing
    • Sustaining motivation
    • Competing with other activities
    • Students and/or parents don’t value the piano as a serious endeavor (hobby)
    • The economy
  • 55. Current Challenges
    • New populations of students:
    • Preschool aged
    • Special needs
    • Adult hobbyists
  • 56. Solutions or Resources in Overcoming Current Challenges
    • Discussing issues with friends and colleagues
    • New forms of advertising
    • On-line music resources for pop music and other motivating music for students
  • 57. Solutions or Resources in Overcoming Current Challenges
    • Fake books or methods to help students play by ear
    • Taking an eclectic approach for individually tailoring the curriculum to the needs of each student.
  • 58. Piano Pedagogy Coursework- Helpful Aspects
    • (7 of the 8 participants had at least 1 undergraduate and 1 graduate course in piano pedagogy)
    • A forum to discuss experiences with peers and experienced teachers
    • Writing lists of literature & exams appropriate for various ages or levels
    • Developing a curriculum for a group college course
  • 59. Piano Pedagogy Coursework- Helpful Aspects
    • (7 of the 8 participants had at least 1 undergraduate and 1 graduate course in piano pedagogy)
    • Writing a philosophy of teaching
    • Surveying method books
    • Developing a studio policy
    • Observations of experienced teachers
  • 60. Piano Pedagogy Coursework- Helpful Aspects
    • (7 of the 8 participants had at least 1 undergraduate and 1 graduate course in piano pedagogy)
    • Setting up a piano studio
    • Practicing in editing and composing teaching pieces
  • 61. Aspects teachers felt ill-equipped to teach from pedagogy coursework
    • Intermediate-advanced level students
    • Special populations of students
    • *Pre-reading/Pre-school age
    • *Special-needs
    • *mature adult hobbyists
  • 62. Aspects teachers felt ill-equipped to teach from pedagogy coursework
    • Dealing with students as individuals
    • New forms of advertising and the business aspects of setting up a piano studio (taxes, etc…)
    • Non notation-based teaching methods (improvisation, playing by ear, etc…)
  • 63. Piano Pedagogy Coursework Ineffective Aspects
    • Inauthentic teaching or observation experiences
    • “ The class at (omitted) was hilarious because I was assigned to teach (in front of the entire class) a “student” (actually my boyfriend who was also a piano major) a piece of music. It was silly – like being in a play…it was sort of like play-acting. It was just sort of silly. It wasn’t real” (Susan Liszt)
  • 64. Desired pedagogy topics
    • Hands-on teaching
    • Taxes
    • Record keeping
    • Advertising
    • Improvising, playing by ear
  • 65. Desired pedagogy topics
    • Child development
    • Child behavior
    • Psychology & Learning theories
    • (e.g., Gordon)
    • How to approach different types of learners
    • *students with disabilities
  • 66. Desired pedagogy topics
    • New populations of students
    • *Pre-school
    • *Special-needs
    • *Adult Hobbyists
    • Observations of professional teachers
    • Different approaches to technique
  • 67. Teachers: Reflections on time spent in college
    • 2 participants said they felt there was little to no difference
    • 6 participants felt there was a substantial difference
  • 68. Teachers: Reflections on time spent in college
    • Vast difference:
    • Focus on performance
    • ‘ Classical’ Repertoire
  • 69. Teachers: Reflections on time spent in college
    • Piano teachers satisfied with education:
    • Had previous teaching experience
    • Taught during their education
    • Did not depend on the curriculum to give them all of their knowledge
  • 70. Suggestions for the Future of Piano Pedagogy
    • Piano pedagogy should be required of all performance majors
    • Good performers do not always make good teachers
    • Pedagogy knowledge contributed to performance
    • Included at the undergraduate level as well
  • 71. Suggestions as to the Future of Piano Pedagogy
    • Business Skills:
    • Accounting
    • Tax preparation
    • Advertising & Marketing
  • 72. Suggestions as to the Future of Piano Pedagogy
    • Piano lessons should allow students to make independent decisions, such as choosing repertoire or harmonizing familiar tunes
    • Improvisation
    • Technology
  • 73. And the Piano Curriculum in General…
    • More time on pedagogy, less on preparing for recitals
    • Even performers need business skills
  • 74. Future Research
    • Dissertation
    • Large scale survey
    • Follow-up Interviews
  • 75. References
    • Chronister, R. (2001). The National Conferences on Piano Pedagogy: Whither and Wherefore. American Music Teacher, 50(5), 30-34.
    • Conway, C. M. (1999). The development of teaching cases for instrumental music methods courses. Journal of Research in Music Education 47 (4), 343-356.
    • Conway, C. M. & Hodgman, T. M. (2006). Handbook for the beginning music teacher. Chicago, IL: GIA Publications, Inc.
    • Conway, C. M. & MENC, The National Association for Music Education. (2003).
    • Great beginnings for music teachers: Mentoring and supporting new teachers. Reston, VA: MENC, the National Association for Music Education.
    • Fu, H. C. (2007). A status and vision investigation of US university piano pedagogy
    • programs (Doctoral dissertation, University of North Texas, 2007).
    • Gordon, S., Mach, E., & Uszler, M. (1991). The well-tempered keyboard teacher .
    • New York: Schirmer Books.
    • Gray, M. E. (1998). Teacher or performer: Role identification among piano majors. (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Oklahoma, 1998). Digital Dissertations, 59 (04), 1104.
    • Haddon, E. (2009). Instrumental and vocal teaching: How do music students learn how to teach? British Journal of Music Education, 26 (1), 57-70.
  • 76. References (continued)
    • Heisler, P. K. (1995). A theoretical comparison of certified piano teachers’ claim to
    • professional status with the sociological definition of profession. International
    • Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music 26 (2), 239-249.
    • Houle, A. (2004). 5 minutes with… Marienne Uszler. American Music Teacher, 54 (2), 65.
    • Jacobson, J. M., & Lancaster, E. L. (2006). Professional piano teaching: A
    • comprehensive piano pedagogy textbook for teaching elementary-level students . Los Angeles: Alfred Publishing.
    • Maris, B.E. (2000). Teacher training for the pianist in preparation for the 21st century. The American Music Teacher , 49 (6), 33.
    • MENC (2010). Society for music teacher education: Professional literature project .
    • George N. Heller (Ed.), Retrieved May 31, 2010 at http:// www.menc.org/
    • resources/view/society-for-music-teacher-education-professional-literature- project
    • Music Teachers National Association. (1990). Pedagogic training of music teachers: A
    • survey report. Cincinnati, OH: Author.
  • 77. References (continued)
    • NASM, National Association of Schools of Music. (2007). Higher Education Arts Data
    • Services (HEADS): Music Data Summaries (2006-2007). Reston, VA: HEADS
    • National Conference on Keyboard Pedagogy. (2004). Task Force on Pedagogy Curricula. Retrieved June 22, 2010 from http:// www.francesclarkcenter.org/
    • NationalConferencePages/resources/curriculumResources.html
    • Schons, S.M. (2005) Piano teachers’ attitudes on piano pedagogy course topics.
    • (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Oklahoma, 2005.)
    • Sumpter, T. L. (2008). Professional status and the independent piano teaching
    • occupation: A study and analysis of demographics, training, business policies,
    • and studio practices (Doctoral dissertation, University of Oklahoma, 2008).
    • Uszler, M. (1993). Research on the teaching of keyboard music. In R. Colwell (Ed.), Handbook of research on music teaching and learning: A project of the music educators national conference (pp. 584-93). New York: Schirmer Books.
  • 78. References (continued)
    • Uszler, M., & Larimer, F. (1984). The piano pedagogy major in the college curriculum: A handbook of information and guidelines. Part I: The
    • undergraduate piano pedagogy major. Princeton, NJ: The National Conference on Piano Pedagogy.
    • Uszler, M., & Larimer, F. (1986). The piano pedagogy major in the college
    • curriculum: A handbook of information and guidelines. Part II: The graduate
    • piano pedagogy major. Princeton, NJ: The National Conference on Piano
    • Pedagogy.