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GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy
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GP3 Piano Pedagogy Presentation- Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy

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This is my presentation for the GP3 Group Piano & Piano Pedagogy Conference taking place August 6th in Austin, Texas. I will be presenting the results of 2 pilot studies in preparation for my …

This is my presentation for the GP3 Group Piano & Piano Pedagogy Conference taking place August 6th in Austin, Texas. I will be presenting the results of 2 pilot studies in preparation for my dissertation. This research focuses on the pianist's transition into the teaching role including challenges they face, solutions/resources they find, reflections and suggestions for the future.

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  • 1. Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy: Challenges, Solutions, Reflections, and Suggestions for the Future Melissa M. Slawsky, Ph.D. Candidate Center for Music Education Research, University of South Florida
  • 2. Background *B.M. piano- Florida Southern College *M.M. piano pedagogy- Univ. of S. Florida *Ph.D. music education- Univ. of S. Florida Performance  Pedagogy  Research
  • 3. Introduction Standard teacher-training program- *Educational coursework *Observations of experienced teachers *Fieldwork experience/internships *Supervised student teaching *Mentored when entering the field Induction- 1-3 year years *sensitive and impressionable period *much research exists
  • 4. Piano Teacher Training A very different framework- *Master-apprentice model *Years of private study *Piano Pedagogy Coursework *Limited support when transitioning to the teaching role
  • 5. The Field <ul><li>*Lack of consistent guidelines and/or standards (Jacobson & Lancaster, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>*Professional development is not mandated (Heisler, 1995; Jacobson & Lancaster, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>*Quality of instruction is unchecked and uncontrolled (Heisler, 1995; Wolfersberger, 1986) </li></ul><ul><li>*Piano teachers operate independently of professional structures (Jacobson & Lancaster, 2006) </li></ul>
  • 6. Master-Apprentice Model <ul><li>“ The master is the model who demonstrates, directs, comments and inspires and the apprentice is the disciple who watches, listens, imitates and seeks approval’. This is still a powerful universal motivating force particularly in conservatoires. It is also a firmly established model for the teaching of music in many private music studios” (Uszler, Gordon, & Mach, 1993, p.584). </li></ul>
  • 7. Master-Apprentice Model? <ul><li>An apprenticing electrician studies with an electrician to become an electrician </li></ul><ul><li>An apprenticing pianist studies with a piano teacher to become a pianist (performer) </li></ul><ul><li>(Then has to learn how to teach) </li></ul>
  • 8. Research problem <ul><li>How do pianists make the transition from student to teacher? </li></ul>
  • 9. Cognitive Apprenticeship <ul><li>Merges apprenticeship with formal training </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences are articulated </li></ul><ul><li>Increased independence </li></ul><ul><li>Create authentic experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Provide expert models </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for collaboration </li></ul>
  • 10. Piano Pedagogy Guidelines <ul><li>National Conference on Keyboard Pedagogy’s Task Force on Pedagogy Curricula (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>NASM guidelines cited </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended- </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogical coursework </li></ul><ul><li>Observations of experienced teachers </li></ul><ul><li>A supervised internship </li></ul>
  • 11. Implementation Challenges <ul><li>“ Financial limitations ” </li></ul><ul><li>(Fu, 2007; Uszler & Larimer, 1984) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Faculty acquisition” </li></ul><ul><li>(Fu, 2007; Uszler & Larimer, 1984) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Space, equipment, and library resources” </li></ul><ul><li>(Uszler & Larimer, 1984, p.12) </li></ul><ul><li>Administration (Uszler & Larimer, 1984) </li></ul><ul><li>Advocating for piano pedagogy </li></ul>
  • 12. An Uphill Battle <ul><li>Piano pedagogy is not valued by some institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Tension between roles as performers and teachers </li></ul>
  • 13. Purpose <ul><li>Explore how piano teachers learn to teach from and independent of piano pedagogy coursework, </li></ul><ul><li>- overcome challenges , and </li></ul><ul><li>- continue to add to their pedagogy knowledge </li></ul>
  • 14. Purpose (continued) <ul><li>b. Explore topics that would be most useful in a p i a n o p e d a g o g y course or program </li></ul>
  • 15. Qualitative Approach <ul><li>Phenomenology </li></ul><ul><li>“… there is an essence or essences to shared experience” (Patton, 2002, p. 106). </li></ul><ul><li>Heuristic Inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; . . In heuristic research the investigator must have had a direct, personal encounter with the phenomenon being investigated. There must have been actual autobiographical connections” (Moustakas, 1990, p. 14) </li></ul>
  • 16. Research Questions <ul><li>How do piano teachers make the transition from student to teacher? </li></ul><ul><li>a. What challenges do they face? </li></ul><ul><li>b. What solutions/resources do they find? </li></ul><ul><li>c. What learning experiences (formal and informal) helped prepare them? </li></ul>
  • 17. Research Questions <ul><li>2. What current challenges do piano teachers face? </li></ul><ul><li>a. What solutions/resources do they find to overcome these challenges? </li></ul>
  • 18. Research Questions <ul><li>3. What do piano teachers suggest for the future of: </li></ul><ul><li>a. piano pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>b. the piano curriculum, in general? </li></ul>
  • 19. Closely Aligned Literature <ul><li>Colleen Conway- Music Education </li></ul><ul><li>Dissertation: </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewed preservice music educators </li></ul><ul><li>Goal- inform music methods courses </li></ul>
  • 20. Induction Challenges <ul><li>Challenges included: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Classroom management </li></ul><ul><li>b. Routines for Learning </li></ul><ul><li>c. Finding & choosing a curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>d. Re-establishment when moving to a new school </li></ul><ul><li>e. Advocating for music education </li></ul><ul><li>(Conway & Hodgman, 2006) </li></ul>
  • 21. Implications for Beginning Music Educators <ul><li>Handbook for the Beginning Music Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>(Conway & Hodgman, 2006) </li></ul>
  • 22. Implications for Mentors & Administrators <ul><li>Great Beginnings for Music Teachers: Mentoring and Supporting New Teachers (Conway & MENC, 2003) </li></ul>
  • 23. Implications <ul><li>By studying the transition from student to teacher, Conway informed: </li></ul><ul><li>a variety of music educators </li></ul><ul><li>(from students to administrators) </li></ul><ul><li>The framework for teacher education </li></ul><ul><li>The field for which they will be entering </li></ul>
  • 24. Haddon (2009) <ul><li>Studied the experiences of the beginning applied music instrumental instructor: </li></ul><ul><li>Commented on lack of support & pedagogical training in the UK </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewed undergraduate instrumentalists ( N= 16) </li></ul><ul><li>Only 1 had formal training in teaching </li></ul>
  • 25. Haddon (2009) <ul><li>Instrumentalists listed several challenges faced including: </li></ul><ul><li>communication with students and parents </li></ul><ul><li>balancing student, teacher, and parent expectations regarding repertoire, pace, and progress </li></ul><ul><li>“ maintaining teacher-authority[,] and </li></ul><ul><li>achieving a balance between fun and </li></ul><ul><li>discipline” (p. 66). </li></ul>
  • 26. Haddon (2009) <ul><li>Teaching developed through instinct and experience </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of past teachers and materials </li></ul><ul><li>Unaware of training opportunities and pedagogical literature </li></ul>
  • 27. Haddon (2009) <ul><li>Recommended that pedagogical training be increased </li></ul><ul><li>Support through mentoring programs </li></ul>
  • 28. Pedagogical Coursework <ul><li>Often the only teacher-training experience </li></ul><ul><li>It is critical that these courses are relevant and effective </li></ul>
  • 29. Piano Pedagogy <ul><li>Relatively new (100 years or so) </li></ul><ul><li>Developed during a period of much social change </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing in colleges and universities (Fu, 2007; HEADS, 2007) </li></ul>
  • 30. Relevance & Effectiveness <ul><li>Schons (2005)- </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys ( N= 598) </li></ul><ul><li>MTNA mailing list </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy Topic Recommendations: </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching advanced, </li></ul><ul><li>learning disabled, </li></ul><ul><li>pre-school, and </li></ul><ul><li>adult hobby students </li></ul>
  • 31. Pedagogy Topics <ul><li>Schons (2005)- </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy Topic Recommendations: </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Business practices </li></ul><ul><li>Professional resources </li></ul><ul><li>Group lessons </li></ul><ul><li>Sustaining a viable living </li></ul>
  • 32. Contradictory Findings <ul><li>Sumpter (2008)- </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys ( N= 298) </li></ul><ul><li>MTNA mailing list </li></ul><ul><li>Ranked as most important- </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Ranked least important: </li></ul><ul><li>Improvisation </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-assisted instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Jazz and rock music </li></ul>
  • 33. Irony <ul><li>Participants age 55 and above </li></ul><ul><li>30 years of teaching experience </li></ul><ul><li>MTNA mailing lists </li></ul>
  • 34. Method <ul><li>Phase 1 & 2- </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-structured interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Conducted over the phone </li></ul><ul><li>Interview transcribed </li></ul><ul><li>Coded </li></ul>
  • 35. The Interview Guide <ul><li>22 questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Piano teachers asked about: </li></ul><ul><li>Demographics & studio set-up </li></ul><ul><li>Transition into the teaching role </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges, Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Current Challenges & Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Reflections & Suggestions for the future </li></ul>
  • 36. Participants <ul><li>Phase 1- </li></ul>40+ Collegiate studio D.M.A. piano 65 Dr. Autumn Van Arden 25 Private studio M.M. piano pedagogy 70 Susan Liszt 10 Private studio M.M. piano 28 Lisa Crawford 3 Private studio B.M. in progress 21 Thomas Chang Teaching experience Teaching setting Education Age Participant
  • 37. Participants <ul><li>Phase 2- </li></ul>12 Private studio B.A., B.M. M.A. in progress 29 Chelsea Ash 13 Private studio B.M. 29 Ellen Page 5 Private studio M.M. 24 Caitlyn Smith 3 Private studio M.M. 28 Sarah Ford Teaching experience Teaching setting Education Age Participant
  • 38. Synthesizing the Data Student Applied lessons Coursework Circumstances that led to teach Transition Emulate + ____ (developing teaching style) Challenges Resources Teacher Current challenges Resources Reflections & suggestions for the future
  • 39. Applied Lessons <ul><li>Piano teachers took an average of 12.5 yrs. of piano lessons before embarking on teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>4 taught in high school </li></ul><ul><li>4 taught before or during graduate study </li></ul>
  • 40. Pedagogy Coursework <ul><li>Coursework in Piano Pedagogy: </li></ul><ul><li>4 took 1 undergraduate course </li></ul><ul><li>4 took graduate courses </li></ul><ul><li>(1 had 1 course, and 3 had 2 courses) </li></ul>
  • 41. Circumstances that led to teach <ul><li>Piano teachers listed several reasons including: </li></ul><ul><li>4 were asked to teach </li></ul><ul><li>2 were required to teach for graduate study </li></ul><ul><li>1 self-motivated during high school </li></ul><ul><li>1 obtained employment during college </li></ul>
  • 42. Transition: Emulating former private teachers <ul><li>Piano teachers: </li></ul><ul><li>Emulated positive aspects: </li></ul><ul><li>*standards </li></ul><ul><li>*routines </li></ul><ul><li>*communication of ideas to students </li></ul><ul><li>*techniques of tone production </li></ul>
  • 43. Transition: Emulating former private teachers <ul><li>Piano teachers: </li></ul><ul><li>Took the positive aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Left out negative or counterproductive aspects </li></ul>
  • 44. Transition: Emulating former private teachers <ul><li>Piano teachers: </li></ul><ul><li>Developed teaching style based on what other teachers left out or neglected in the piano curriculum </li></ul>
  • 45. Transition: Emulating former private teachers <ul><li>Piano teachers: </li></ul><ul><li>Developed teaching style in OPPOSITION to former teachers </li></ul>
  • 46. Developing Teaching Style <ul><li>Emulate former teachers + _____________ </li></ul><ul><li>(in developing teaching style) </li></ul>
  • 47. Other Aspects in Developing Teaching Style <ul><li>Participants also used lateral knowledge drawn from other musical experiences: </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting- score study </li></ul><ul><li>Violin- tone production, phrasing, breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Ensemble playing (contributing to polyphonic music) </li></ul>
  • 48. Other Aspects in Developing Teaching Style <ul><li>Participants also used lateral knowledge drawn from other musical experiences: </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal study/Singing </li></ul><ul><li>Practical Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Eclectic Mix </li></ul>
  • 49. Challenges faced in beginning to teach: <ul><li>No curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>(Choosing methods, technique & theory books, and literature) </li></ul><ul><li>No guidance or support </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with discipline or behavioral problems </li></ul><ul><li>Enforcing policies </li></ul><ul><li>Acquiring new students </li></ul><ul><li>Not knowing what to do… </li></ul>
  • 50. Not knowing what to do… <ul><li>Lack of education on how to teach: </li></ul><ul><li>“ I had not studied how to teach, only how to play, and had no guidance at that time from experienced teachers… I had to teach myself how to teach” (Susan Liszt). </li></ul><ul><li>“ I wish there were more resources to prepare me in teaching music, rather than just picking it up on my own and learning as I go, and getting it from other people” (Thomas Chang). </li></ul>
  • 51. Overcoming Challenges as Beginning Teachers <ul><li>Gained more experience </li></ul><ul><li>(trial and error) </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>*Composer treatises </li></ul><ul><li>*Resources on performing different styles </li></ul>
  • 52. Overcoming Challenges as Beginning Teachers <ul><li>Discussed issues with other teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Developed professionalism </li></ul><ul><li>*Joined professional organizations </li></ul><ul><li>*Went to college </li></ul><ul><li>Improved communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>Gained skills in recruiting additional students </li></ul>
  • 53. Current Challenges <ul><li>Transitioning students from method books into intermediate repertoire </li></ul><ul><li>Time management- </li></ul><ul><li>Cramming everything into a 30 minute lesson </li></ul>
  • 54. Current Challenges <ul><li>Helping students develop an individual style of playing </li></ul><ul><li>Sustaining motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Competing with other activities </li></ul><ul><li>Students and/or parents don’t value the piano as a serious endeavor (hobby) </li></ul><ul><li>The economy </li></ul>
  • 55. Current Challenges <ul><li>New populations of students: </li></ul><ul><li>Preschool aged </li></ul><ul><li>Special needs </li></ul><ul><li>Adult hobbyists </li></ul>
  • 56. Solutions or Resources in Overcoming Current Challenges <ul><li>Discussing issues with friends and colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>New forms of advertising </li></ul><ul><li>On-line music resources for pop music and other motivating music for students </li></ul>
  • 57. Solutions or Resources in Overcoming Current Challenges <ul><li>Fake books or methods to help students play by ear </li></ul><ul><li>Taking an eclectic approach for individually tailoring the curriculum to the needs of each student. </li></ul>
  • 58. Piano Pedagogy Coursework- Helpful Aspects <ul><li>(7 of the 8 participants had at least 1 undergraduate and 1 graduate course in piano pedagogy) </li></ul><ul><li>A forum to discuss experiences with peers and experienced teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Writing lists of literature & exams appropriate for various ages or levels </li></ul><ul><li>Developing a curriculum for a group college course </li></ul>
  • 59. Piano Pedagogy Coursework- Helpful Aspects <ul><li>(7 of the 8 participants had at least 1 undergraduate and 1 graduate course in piano pedagogy) </li></ul><ul><li>Writing a philosophy of teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Surveying method books </li></ul><ul><li>Developing a studio policy </li></ul><ul><li>Observations of experienced teachers </li></ul>
  • 60. Piano Pedagogy Coursework- Helpful Aspects <ul><li>(7 of the 8 participants had at least 1 undergraduate and 1 graduate course in piano pedagogy) </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up a piano studio </li></ul><ul><li>Practicing in editing and composing teaching pieces </li></ul>
  • 61. Aspects teachers felt ill-equipped to teach from pedagogy coursework <ul><li>Intermediate-advanced level students </li></ul><ul><li>Special populations of students </li></ul><ul><li>*Pre-reading/Pre-school age </li></ul><ul><li>*Special-needs </li></ul><ul><li>*mature adult hobbyists </li></ul>
  • 62. Aspects teachers felt ill-equipped to teach from pedagogy coursework <ul><li>Dealing with students as individuals </li></ul><ul><li>New forms of advertising and the business aspects of setting up a piano studio (taxes, etc…) </li></ul><ul><li>Non notation-based teaching methods (improvisation, playing by ear, etc…) </li></ul>
  • 63. Piano Pedagogy Coursework Ineffective Aspects <ul><li>Inauthentic teaching or observation experiences </li></ul><ul><li>“ The class at (omitted) was hilarious because I was assigned to teach (in front of the entire class) a “student” (actually my boyfriend who was also a piano major) a piece of music. It was silly – like being in a play…it was sort of like play-acting. It was just sort of silly. It wasn’t real” (Susan Liszt) </li></ul>
  • 64. Desired pedagogy topics <ul><li>Hands-on teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Record keeping </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Improvising, playing by ear </li></ul>
  • 65. Desired pedagogy topics <ul><li>Child development </li></ul><ul><li>Child behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology & Learning theories </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g., Gordon) </li></ul><ul><li>How to approach different types of learners </li></ul><ul><li>*students with disabilities </li></ul>
  • 66. Desired pedagogy topics <ul><li>New populations of students </li></ul><ul><li>*Pre-school </li></ul><ul><li>*Special-needs </li></ul><ul><li>*Adult Hobbyists </li></ul><ul><li>Observations of professional teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Different approaches to technique </li></ul>
  • 67. Teachers: Reflections on time spent in college <ul><li>2 participants said they felt there was little to no difference </li></ul><ul><li>6 participants felt there was a substantial difference </li></ul>
  • 68. Teachers: Reflections on time spent in college <ul><li>Vast difference: </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on performance </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Classical’ Repertoire </li></ul>
  • 69. Teachers: Reflections on time spent in college <ul><li>Piano teachers satisfied with education: </li></ul><ul><li>Had previous teaching experience </li></ul><ul><li>Taught during their education </li></ul><ul><li>Did not depend on the curriculum to give them all of their knowledge </li></ul>
  • 70. Suggestions for the Future of Piano Pedagogy <ul><li>Piano pedagogy should be required of all performance majors </li></ul><ul><li>Good performers do not always make good teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy knowledge contributed to performance </li></ul><ul><li>Included at the undergraduate level as well </li></ul>
  • 71. Suggestions as to the Future of Piano Pedagogy <ul><li>Business Skills: </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting </li></ul><ul><li>Tax preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising & Marketing </li></ul>
  • 72. Suggestions as to the Future of Piano Pedagogy <ul><li>Piano lessons should allow students to make independent decisions, such as choosing repertoire or harmonizing familiar tunes </li></ul><ul><li>Improvisation </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul>
  • 73. And the Piano Curriculum in General… <ul><li>More time on pedagogy, less on preparing for recitals </li></ul><ul><li>Even performers need business skills </li></ul>
  • 74. Future Research <ul><li>Dissertation </li></ul><ul><li>Large scale survey </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up Interviews </li></ul>
  • 75. References <ul><li>Chronister, R. (2001). The National Conferences on Piano Pedagogy: Whither and Wherefore. American Music Teacher, 50(5), 30-34. </li></ul><ul><li>Conway, C. M. (1999). The development of teaching cases for instrumental music methods courses. Journal of Research in Music Education 47 (4), 343-356. </li></ul><ul><li>Conway, C. M. & Hodgman, T. M. (2006). Handbook for the beginning music teacher. Chicago, IL: GIA Publications, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Conway, C. M. & MENC, The National Association for Music Education. (2003). </li></ul><ul><li>Great beginnings for music teachers: Mentoring and supporting new teachers. Reston, VA: MENC, the National Association for Music Education. </li></ul><ul><li>Fu, H. C. (2007). A status and vision investigation of US university piano pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>programs (Doctoral dissertation, University of North Texas, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Gordon, S., Mach, E., & Uszler, M. (1991). The well-tempered keyboard teacher . </li></ul><ul><li>New York: Schirmer Books. </li></ul><ul><li>Gray, M. E. (1998). Teacher or performer: Role identification among piano majors. (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Oklahoma, 1998). Digital Dissertations, 59 (04), 1104. </li></ul><ul><li>Haddon, E. (2009). Instrumental and vocal teaching: How do music students learn how to teach? British Journal of Music Education, 26 (1), 57-70. </li></ul>
  • 76. References (continued) <ul><li>Heisler, P. K. (1995). A theoretical comparison of certified piano teachers’ claim to </li></ul><ul><li>professional status with the sociological definition of profession. International </li></ul><ul><li>Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music 26 (2), 239-249. </li></ul><ul><li>Houle, A. (2004). 5 minutes with… Marienne Uszler. American Music Teacher, 54 (2), 65. </li></ul><ul><li>Jacobson, J. M., & Lancaster, E. L. (2006). Professional piano teaching: A </li></ul><ul><li>comprehensive piano pedagogy textbook for teaching elementary-level students . Los Angeles: Alfred Publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Maris, B.E. (2000). Teacher training for the pianist in preparation for the 21st century. The American Music Teacher , 49 (6), 33. </li></ul><ul><li>MENC (2010). Society for music teacher education: Professional literature project . </li></ul><ul><li>George N. Heller (Ed.), Retrieved May 31, 2010 at http:// www.menc.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>resources/view/society-for-music-teacher-education-professional-literature- project </li></ul><ul><li>Music Teachers National Association. (1990). Pedagogic training of music teachers: A </li></ul><ul><li>survey report. Cincinnati, OH: Author. </li></ul>
  • 77. References (continued) <ul><li>NASM, National Association of Schools of Music. (2007). Higher Education Arts Data </li></ul><ul><li>Services (HEADS): Music Data Summaries (2006-2007). Reston, VA: HEADS </li></ul><ul><li>National Conference on Keyboard Pedagogy. (2004). Task Force on Pedagogy Curricula. Retrieved June 22, 2010 from http:// www.francesclarkcenter.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>NationalConferencePages/resources/curriculumResources.html </li></ul><ul><li>Schons, S.M. (2005) Piano teachers’ attitudes on piano pedagogy course topics. </li></ul><ul><li>(Doctoral dissertation, The University of Oklahoma, 2005.) </li></ul><ul><li>Sumpter, T. L. (2008). Professional status and the independent piano teaching </li></ul><ul><li>occupation: A study and analysis of demographics, training, business policies, </li></ul><ul><li>and studio practices (Doctoral dissertation, University of Oklahoma, 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>Uszler, M. (1993). Research on the teaching of keyboard music. In R. Colwell (Ed.), Handbook of research on music teaching and learning: A project of the music educators national conference (pp. 584-93). New York: Schirmer Books. </li></ul>
  • 78. References (continued) <ul><li>Uszler, M., & Larimer, F. (1984). The piano pedagogy major in the college curriculum: A handbook of information and guidelines. Part I: The </li></ul><ul><li>undergraduate piano pedagogy major. Princeton, NJ: The National Conference on Piano Pedagogy. </li></ul><ul><li>Uszler, M., & Larimer, F. (1986). The piano pedagogy major in the college </li></ul><ul><li>curriculum: A handbook of information and guidelines. Part II: The graduate </li></ul><ul><li>piano pedagogy major. Princeton, NJ: The National Conference on Piano </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy. </li></ul>

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