history of guidance and counseling


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history of guidance and counseling

  1. 1. History of School Counseling DE GUZMAN, MIA MILAGROS T. II-17 BSE ENGLISH PROF ED 5
  3. 3. GUIDANCE VS. COUNSELING Guidance Counseling AIM IS TO help people 3
  4. 4. TIMELINE 4
  5. 5. TIMELINE 5 SCHOOL COUNSELING profession Vocational guidance movement (beginning of the 20th century)
  6. 6. Beginning of the 20th century-1940s • 1907 - Jesse B. Davis is thought to be the first to implement a systematic guidance system in public schools. (Schmidt, 2003) • 1908 – Bureau of Vocational Guidance was established by Frank Parsons • 1920s to the 1930s – grew and declined 6 Source: www.schoolcounselor.com
  7. 7. Beginning of the 20th century-1940s • Grew: there was a rise of progressive education in schools • Declined: many schools reacted to this movement as ANTI-EDUCATIONAL (said that the fundamentals of education should be the only thing taught) + GREAT DEPRESSION • 1940s - military 7 Source: www.schoolcounselor.com
  8. 8. History and Development of School Counseling (Allyn & Bacon 2004) • Frank Parsons the “Father of Guidance.” Stressed the scientific approach to selecting a career. In selecting a vocation: One must have a clear self-understanding of one’s aptitudes, abilities, interests, resources and limitations. Knowledge of the requirements, advantages, and disadvantages of different employment. An understanding of how these two are related. 8
  9. 9. History and Development of School Counseling (Allyn & Bacon 2004) • GREAT DEPRESSION • The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in 1930 and lasted until the late 1930s or middle 1940s. It was the longest, most widespread, and deepest depression of the 20th century.
  10. 10. 1950s to the 1970s • 1950s – Guidance and Personnel Service Section in the Division of State and Local School Systems • 1957 – National Defense Educational Act 10 Source: www.schoolcounselor.com
  11. 11. 1950s to the 1970s • 1960s to the 1970s – the profession continued to grow – Funds – New legislation – New professional developments From vocational/career dev’t purpose, it’s focus shifted on STUDENT’S PERSONAL AND SOCIAL ISSUES 11 Source: www.schoolcounselor.com
  12. 12. 1950s to the 1970s • Late 60s to the early 70s – research work by Norm Gysbers showed that there must be a more strategic and systematic goal of having a comprehensive dev’t school counseling programs for every student (K-12) 12 Source: www.schoolcounselor.com
  13. 13. 1980s and 1990s • 1980s to the early 1990s – US wasn’t a player in the educational reform efforts – Campbell and Dahir, 1997 American School Counseling Association (ASCA) National Standards for School Counseling 3 core domains - academic - career - personal/social 13 Source: www.schoolcounselor.com
  14. 14. 1980s and 1990s • Late 1990s – Educational Trust’s project (Pat Martin): School Counseling WILL help close achievement gaps hindering the life successes of children and adolescents, including children and adolescents of color, poor and working class children and adolescents, bilingual children and adolescents and children and adolescents with disabilities. 14 Source: www.schoolcounselor.com
  15. 15. 1980s and 1990s • Late 1990s – National Center form Transforming School Counseling (House and Martin, 2003 15 Source: www.schoolcounselor.com
  16. 16. Recent • 2002 – ASCA released ASCA National Model Framework (Dr. Trish Hatch and Dr. Judy Bowers) – Counseling components: the work of Norm Gysbers, Curly & Sharon Johnson, Robert Myrick, Dahir & Campbell's ASCA National Standards + skill-based focus: Educational Trust (Pat Martin and Reese House) 16 Source: www.schoolcounselor.com
  17. 17. Recent • 2002 – RAMP (Recognized ASCA Model Programs • 2003 – Center for School Counseling Outcome Research was developed (Jay Carey) • 2004 – ASCA Code of Ethics was revised – National Office for School Counselor Advocacy (NOSCA) (House & Lee) 17 Source: www.schoolcounselor.com
  18. 18. Recent • 2006 (January 1) – US congress officially declared Feb 6-10 as National School Counseling Week • 2008 – first NOSCA study was released by Jay Carey – ASCA released School Counseling Competencies – Standards Blending (Dr. Rita Schellenberg) • SCOPE • SCORE . . . 18 Source: www.schoolcounselor.com
  19. 19. Recent • 2008 – Standards Blending (Dr. Rita Schellenberg) • SCOPE (School Counseling Operational Plan for Effectiveness) • SCORE (School Counseling Operational Report of Effectiveness) 19 Source: www.schoolcounselor.com
  20. 20. Recent • 2012 – most recent version of ASCA National Model was published 20 Source: www.schoolcounselor.com
  21. 21. GOAL!!! • increase student academic, career, college, and personal/social competencies including reduced achievement and opportunity gaps for all students 21 Source: www.schoolcounselor.com
  22. 22. OTHER COUNTRIES (including the Philippines) • A balanced, comprehensive school counseling program provides services to promote student success. It involves school counselors working in conjunction with parents, teachers and other school personnel and community agencies. Many developmental concepts that must be covered through a comprehensive program can be incorporated into other classroom studies, giving the school counselor more opportunities for direct counseling, prevention, and remediation functions. It is important that a comprehensive school counseling program provide a range of services in order to address the needs of all students. Counselors should strive to balance their time among all these services, based on the unique needs of their school community. By developing and implementing a comprehensive school counseling plan, school counselors can establish services and activities that allow them to spend most of their time providing direct services to children. 22Source: www.schoolcounselor.com
  23. 23. SUMMARY ^o^ • In the United States, the school counseling profession began as a vocational guidance movement at the beginning of the 20th century (Schmidt, 2003, p. 6). In 1907, Jesse B. Davis became the principal at the Center High School in Detroit, Michigan and encouraged the school English teachers to use compositions and lessons to relate career interests, develop character, and avoid behavioral problems. From that grew systematic guidance programs which later evolved into comprehensive school counseling programs that address three basic domains: academic development, career development, and personal/social development. 23Source: www.schoolcounselor.com
  24. 24. 24 REFERENCES: American School Counselor Association (2005). The ASCA National Model: A framework for school counseling programs. Alexandria, VA: Author. Education Trust. Retrieved from http://www.edtrust.org/node/139 Schmidt, J. J. (2003). Counseling in schools: Essential services and comprehensive programs, 4th ed. Boston, MA.: Allyn & Bacon. School Counselor. Retrieved from http://www.thenewschoolcounselor.com Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_school_counseling Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Depression