hymes and bachman's theories/model of communicative competence


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hymes and bachman's theories/model of communicative competence

  3. 3. Getting to Know… DELL HATHAWAY HYMES
  4. 4.  Born in Portland, Oregon on the 7th of June, 1927  Died on the 13th of November, 2009 in Charlottesville, Virginia due to the complications of his Alzheimer’s disease  Linguist, sociolinguist, anthropologist, and folklorist  “Two Types of Linguistic Relativity” (1966); “On Communicative Competence” (1972)
  5. 5.  His work in the Army as a DECODER is part of what influenced him to become a linguist  INFLUENCES ON HIS WORKS:  American Tradition: Franz Boas, Edward Sapir and Harry Hoijer  Prague Linguistic Circle: Roman Jakobson  Sociologist: Erving Goffman  Ethnomethodologist: Harold Garfinkel, Harvey Sacks, Emanuel SChegloff and Gail Jefferson
  6. 6. Hymes Pioneering the study of the relationship between language and social context Focused on poetics (poetic organization of Native American oral narratives)
  7. 7.  Sometimes referred to as pragmatic or sociolinguistic competence  Knowledge necessary to use language in SOCIAL context, as an object of linguistic inquiry  Coined by DELL HYMES (1966) in reaction to Noam Chomsky’s notion of “linguistic competence” (1965)
  8. 8. Question: What do you (as a language learner) think is the goal of LANGUAGE COURSE?
  9. 9. Probable Answer: It is to teach the GRAMMAR and VOCABULARY of that language.
  10. 10. Question: What is YOUR own PERSONAL GOAL as an L2 learner?
  11. 11. Probable Answer: It is to be able to COMMUNICATE in the L2 of your choice.
  12. 12. In linguistics terminology, a language course should not only have “linguistic competence” as its goal, but “communicative competence” in GENERAL.
  13. 13.  “…a normal child acquires knowledge of sentences not only as grammatical, but also as appropriate. He or she acquires competence as to when to speak, when not, and as to what to talk about with whom, when, where, in what manner. In short, a child becomes able to accomplish a repertoire of speech acts, to take part in speech events, and to evaluate their accomplishment by others.” (Hymes 1972, 277)
  14. 14.  A language learner/user needs to use the language not only CORRECTLY but also APPROPRIATELY.
  16. 16.  Linguistic competence is the knowledge of the language code, i.e. its grammar and vocabulary, and also of the conventions of its written representation (script and orthography).  grammar component includes:  Phonetics  Phonology  Morphology  Syntax  Semantics
  17. 17.  Sociolinguistic competence is the knowledge of socio-cultural rules of use, i.e. knowing how to use and respond to language appropriately.  appropriateness depends on:  setting of the communication  Topic  relationships among the people communicating  knowing what the taboos are  what politeness indices are used  what the politically correct term would be for something  how a specific attitude (authority, friendliness, courtesy, irony etc.) is expressed
  18. 18.  Discourse competence is the knowledge of how to produce and comprehend oral or written texts in the modes of speaking/writing and listening/reading respectively. It’s knowing how to combine language structures into a cohesive and coherent oral or written text of different types.  discourse competence deals with:  organizing words, phrases and sentences in order to create conversations, speeches, poetry, email messages, newspaper articles etc.
  19. 19.  Strategic competence is the ability to recognize and repair communication breakdowns before, during, or after they occur.  For instance:  the speaker may not know a certain word, thus will plan to either paraphrase, or ask what that word is in the target language.  During the conversation, background noise or other factors may hinder communication; thus the speaker must know how to keep the communication channel open.  After, clarifications can be made if the presentation of the topic was not clear enough.
  20. 20.  Hymes developed a valuable model to assist the identification and labeling of components of linguistic interaction that was driven by his view that, in order to speak a language correctly, one needs not only to learn its vocabulary and grammar, but also the context in which words are used.
  21. 21.  The model had sixteen components that can be applied to many sorts of discourse: message form; message content; setting; scene; speaker/sender; addressor; hearer/receiver/audience; addressee; purposes (outcomes); purposes (goals); key; channels; forms of speech; norms of interaction; norms of interpretation; and genres.
  22. 22.  Hymes constructed the acronym SPEAKING, under which he grouped the sixteen components within eight divisions:  S - Setting and Scene  P - Participants  E - Ends  A - Act Sequence  K - Key  I - Instrumentalities  N – Norms  G - Genre
  23. 23.  Setting – physical circumstances Scene – psychological setting or cultural definition
  24. 24. • Speaker and audience - Audience can be distinguished as ADDRESSEES and OTHER HEARERS Participants
  25. 25. Ends Purposes, goals, and outcomes Act Sequence Form and order of the event
  26. 26. Key Clues that establish the "tone, manner, or spirit" of the speech act Instrumentalities Forms and styles of speech.
  27. 27. Norms  Social rules governing the event and the participants' actions and reaction. Genre  The kind of speech act or event; for the example used here, the kind of story.
  28. 28. Getting to Know… LYLE BACHMAN
  29. 29.  Chair of the Department of Applied Linguistics and TESL at the University of California, Los Angeles  “ Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing” (1990) and “Language Testing in Practice” (1996), co-authored with Adrian Palmer  lfb@humnet.ucla.edu
  30. 30. Language Competence Organizational Competence Grammatical Competence Textual Competence Pragmatic Competence Illocutionary Competence Sociolinguistic Competence
  31. 31. • The organizational competence is divided into grammatical competence and textual competence. • Bachman’s grammatical competence is consonant with Canale and Swain’s grammatical competence. The textual competence, pertains to the knowledge of conventions for cohesion and coherenceand rehetorical organization. It also includes conventions for language use in conversations, involving starting, maintaining, and closing conversations. • Bachman’s textual competence have both the part of Canale and Swain’s discourse competence and the part of their strategic competence.
  32. 32.  Bachman’s pragmatic competence, mainly focuses on the relationship between what one says in his or her communicative acts and what functions he or she intends to perform through his or her utterances.
  33. 33.  Bachman, Lyle (1990). Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing. Retrived from http://books.google.com.ph/books/about/Fundamental_C onsiderations_in_Language_T.html?id=5_KJCfkWgqcC&re dir_esc=y  Chomsky, Noam (1965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press  Hymes, Dell H. (1966). “Two Types of Linguistic Relativity.” In Bright, W. Socioliguistics. The Hague: Movton pp. 114- 158  Hymes, Dell H. (1972). “On Communicative Competence.” InPride, JB; Holmes, J, Sociolinguistics: Selected Readings. Harmonds Worth: Penguin pp. 269-293
  34. 34.  http://humanidades.uprrp.edu/smjeg/reserva/Estudios%20Hisp anicos/espa3246/Prof%20Sunny%20Cabrera/ESPA%203246%20- %20On%20Communicative%20Competence%20p%2053-73.pdf  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dell_Hymes  http://anthropology.virginia.edu/node/1366  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communicative_competence  http://rua.ua.es/dspace/bitstream/10045/10400/1/RAEI_21_09.p df  http://www.zoltandornyei.co.uk/uploads/1995-celce-murcia- dornyei-thurrell-ial.pdf  http://www.appling.ucla.edu/faculty/bachman/  http://elearning.la.psu.edu/aplng802/lesson-3/four-areas-of- communicative-competence-discourse-and-strategic- competence