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Conditional sentences

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  • 1. Conditional Sentences De Guzman, Mia Milagros T. II-17 BSE ENGLISH STRUCTURES OF ENGLISH
  • 2. What are Conditions? • "Conditions deal with imagined situations: some are possible, some are unlikely, some are impossible. The speaker/writer imagines that something can or cannot happen or have happened, and then compares that situation with possible consequences or outcomes, or offers further logical conclusions about the situation." (R. Carter, Cambridge Grammar of English. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006)
  • 3. Then… WHAT ARE CONDITIONAL SENTENCES/IF-CLAUSES?
  • 4. What are Conditional Sentences? • Definition – A type of adverbial clause that states a hypothesis or condition, real or imagined. – A conditional clause may be introduced by the subordinating conjunction if or another conjunction, such as unless, provided that, or in case of. – Like other adverbial clauses, a conditional clause can come either before or after the clause on which it states a condition
  • 5. • The conditional sentences are sometimes confusing for learners of English. –Watch out: • 1) Which type of the conditional sentences is used? • 2) Where is the if-clause (e.g. at the beginning or at the end of the conditional sentence)?
  • 6. There are three types of the ifclauses. type condition I condition possible to fulfill II condition in theory possible to fulfill III condition not possible to fulfill (too late)
  • 7. Forms: typ if clause e I II III Simple Present Simple Past Past Perfect main clause will-future (or Modal + infinitive) would + infinitive * would + have + past participle *
  • 8. Types of Conditional Clauses There are six main types of conditional sentence: (John Seely, Grammar for Teachers. Oxpecker, 2007) • For example, the equilibrium between liquid and vapor is upset if the temperature is increased. (General rule, or law of nature: it always happens.) • If you start thinking about this game, it will drive you crazy. (Open future condition: it may or may not happen.) • But if you really wanted to be on Malibu Beach, you'd be there. (Unlikely future condition: it probably won't happen.) • If I were you, I would go to the conference center itself and ask to see someone in security. (Impossible future condition: it could never happen.) • "I would have resigned if they had made the decision themselves," she said. (Impossible past condition: it didn't happen.) • If he had been working for three days and three nights then it was in the suit he was wearing now. (Unknown past condition: we don't know the facts.)
  • 9. Type I Use It is possible to fulfill a condition which is given in the if-clause. if clause main clause Simple Present will-future or infinitive or Modal + infinitive
  • 10. Example Type I If I study, I will pass the exams. If you see John tonight, tell him to e-mail me. If Ben gets up early, he can catch the bus. The if-clause can be at the beginning or at the end of the sentence. If I study, I will pass the exams. I will pass the exams if I study.
  • 11. Type II Use It is theoretically possible to fulfil a condition which is given in the if-clause. if clause main clause Simple Past would + infinitive or could + infinitive or might + infinitive
  • 12. Example Type II If I studied, I would pass the exams. If I studied, I could pass the exams. If I studied, I might pass the exams. The if-clause can be at the beginning or at the end of the sentence. If I studied, I would pass the exams. I would pass the exams if I studied.
  • 13. Type III Use It is impossible to fulfil a condition which is given in the if-clause. if clause main clause Past Perfect would + have + past participle or could + have + past participle or might + have + past participle
  • 14. Example Type III If I had studied, I would have passed the exams. If I had studied, I could have passed the exams. If I had studied, I might have passed the exams. The if-clause can be at the beginning or at the end of the sentence. If I had studied, I would have passed the exams. I would have passed the exams if I had studied.
  • 15. We can substitute could or might for would (should, may or must are sometimes possible, too). I would pass the exam. I could pass the exam. I might pass the exam. I may pass the exam. I should pass the exam. I must pass the exam.
  • 16. Your Test A) Finish the sentences. Use the correct phrases. 1) You would have slept much better 2) If we had seen the film, 3) If you drove from Paris to Lisbon, 4) I would go to the party 5) If you wait a minute, 6) If he studied the new words, 7) The teacher will not be happy 8) My uncle would stay longer in York 9) If Amy does the washing up, 10) If I were you,
  • 17. Possible Answers: • 1) You would have slept much better if you had taken your medicine. 2) If we had seen the film, we would not have bought the DVD. 3) If you drove from Paris to Lisbon, which way would you go? 4) I would go to the party if you came with me. 5) If you wait a minute, I'll go with you. 6) If he studied the new words, he could get a good mark in the test. 7) The teacher will not be happy if we forget our homework again. 8) My uncle would stay longer in York if he had more time. 9) If Amy does the washing up, her brother will clear the table. 10) If I were you, I would not play hockey.
  • 18. References: Englisch-Hilfen.de. Retrived on March 09, 2014 from http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/grammar/if.htm About.com. Grammar and Composition. Retrieved on March 09, 2014 from http://grammar.about.com/od/c/g/conditionalclauset erm.htm
  • 19. The End… Thanks for listening!!! 