cognitive learning theory

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cognitive learning theory

  1. 1. COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORY DE GUZMAN, MIA MILAGROS T. II-17 BSE ENGLISH PROF. BRIOSO PROFED3 THEORIES OF LEARNING
  2. 2. Jean Piaget
  3. 3. Jean Piaget (McLeod, 2009) (August 9, 1896 – September 16, 1980) • Born in Neuchâtel in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. • In 1923, he married Valentine Châtenay, the couple had three children, whom Piaget studied from infancy. • Natural scientist and developmental psychologist well known for his work studying children and his theory of cognitive development.
  4. 4. Jean Piaget (McLeod, 2009) (August 9, 1896 – September 16, 1980) • employed at the Binet Institute in the 1920s, where his job was to develop French versions of questions on English intelligence tests. • Began to explore children in Alfred’s Binet Laboratory. This is where the Modern Test of Intelligence was created. • became intrigued with the reasons children gave for their wrong answers on the questions that required logical thinking.
  5. 5. Jean Piaget (McLeod, 2009) (August 9, 1896 – September 16, 1980) • first psychologist to make a systematic study of cognitive development. • His contributions include a theory of cognitive child development, detailed observational studies of cognition in children, and a series of simple but ingenious tests to reveal different cognitive abilities.
  6. 6. Jean Piaget (McLeod, 2009) • His career of scientific research began when he was just eleven, with the 1907 publication of a short paper on the albino sparrow. • Wrote more than sixty books and several hundred articles.
  7. 7. Piaget's Cognitive Learning Theory
  8. 8. Three Basic Components To Piaget's Cognitive Theory: (Dasen, 1994) • Schemas  (building blocks of knowledge) • Processes that enable the transition from one stage to another (equilibrium, assimilation and accommodation) • Stages of Development:  sensorimotor,  preoperational,  concrete operational,  formal operational
  9. 9. Three Basic Components To Piaget's Cognitive Theory • Schemas (Piaget, 1936) basic building block of intelligent behavior – a way of organizing knowledge. “units” of knowledge A way of organizing knowledge set of linked mental representations of the world, which we use both to understand and to respond to situations.
  10. 10. Three Basic Components To Piaget's Cognitive Theory
  11. 11. Three Basic Components To Piaget's Cognitive Theory
  12. 12. Three Basic Components To Piaget's Cognitive Theory
  13. 13. Three Basic Components To Piaget's Cognitive Theory • Let’s put in mind that Piaget’s Cognitive Theory was focused on CHILDREN.
  14. 14. Three Basic Components To Piaget's Cognitive Theory (Dasen, 1994) • Processes that enable the transition from one stage to another  Assimilation • – Which is using an existing schema to deal with a new object or situation.  Accommodation • – This happens when the existing schema (knowledge) does not work, and needs to be changed to deal with a new object or situation.  Equilibration • –This is the force, which moves development along.
  15. 15. Assimilation and Accommodation
  16. 16. Three Basic Components To Piaget's Cognitive Theory
  17. 17. Three Basic Components To Piaget's Cognitive Theory (McLeod, 2009) • Cognitive Development Stages  The Sensorimotor Period (birth to 2 years)  Preoperational Thought (2 to 6/7 years)  Concrete Operations (6/7 to 11/12 years)  Formal Operations Formal Operations (11/12 to adult)
  18. 18. Three Basic Components To Piaget's Cognitive Theory
  19. 19. Three Basic Components To Piaget's Cognitive Theory
  20. 20. Cognitive Development Stages The Sensorimotor Period (0-2 yrs.) • In this stage knowledge of the world is limited (but developing) because it’s based on physical interactions/experiences. • The child learns that he is separate from his environment and that aspects of his environment continue to exist even though they may be outside the reach of his senses. • Behaviors are limited to simple motor responses caused by sensory stimuli. In this stage according to Piaget, the development of object permanence is one of the most important accomplishments at the sensorimotor stage.
  21. 21. Cognitive Development Stages The Sensorimotor Period (0-2 yrs.)
  22. 22. Cognitive Development Stages Preoperational Thought (2-7 yrs.) • Children’s increase in playing and pretending takes place in this stage, however the child still has trouble seeing things from different points of view. • Thinking in this stage is still egocentric, meaning the child has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others. The Pre-operational stage is split into two substages:  Symbolic Function Sub stage,  Intuitive Thought Sub stage.
  23. 23. Cognitive Development Stages Preoperational Thought (2-7 yrs.) • The Symbolic Function substage is when children are able to understand, represent, remember, and picture objects in their mind without having the object in front of them. • The Intuitive Thought substage is when children tend to propose the questions of why and how come. This stage is when children want the knowledge of knowing everything.
  24. 24. Cognitive Development Stages Preoperational Thought (2-7 yrs.) • The Symbolic Function substage (role-play)
  25. 25. Cognitive Development Stages Preoperational Thought (2-7 yrs.) • The Symbolic Function substage (egocentrism)
  26. 26. Cognitive Development Stages Preoperational Thought (2-7 yrs.) • The Symbolic Function substage (pre-causal: Animism)
  27. 27. Cognitive Development Stages Preoperational Thought (2-7 yrs.) • The Symbolic Function substage (pre-causal: Artificialism)
  28. 28. Cognitive Development Stages Preoperational Thought (2-7 yrs.) • The Symbolic Function sub stage (pre-causal: transductive thinking)
  29. 29. Cognitive Development Stages Preoperational Thought (2-7 yrs.) • The Intuitive Thought sub stage (Centration vs. conservation)
  30. 30. Cognitive Development Stages Preoperational Thought (2-7 yrs.) • The Intuitive Thought sub stage (Class Inclusion)
  31. 31. Cognitive Development Stages Concrete Operations (7-11 yrs.) • characterized by the appropriate use of logic. • Inductive reasoning involves drawing inferences from observations in order to make a generalization
  32. 32. Concrete Operations (7-11 yrs.) Milestones of the concrete operational stage • - Ability to distinguish between their own thoughts and the thoughts of others. Children recognize that their thoughts and perceptions may be different from those around them. • - Increased classification skills: Children are able to classify objects by their number, mass, and weight. • - Ability to think logically about objects and events • - Ability to fluently perform mathematical problems in both addition and subtraction
  33. 33. Cognitive Development Stages Concrete Operations (7-11 yrs.) • Conservation • Decentering • Reversibility • Seriation • Transitivity • Classification • Elimination of Egocentrism
  34. 34. Cognitive Development Stages Formal Operations (11- adult) • Intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts • Piaget believed that deductive logic becomes important during the formal operational stage. • Abstract thought emerges during the formal operational stage. Children tend to think very concretely and specifically in earlier stages. Children begin to consider possible outcomes and consequences of actions. • Problem-solving is demonstrated when children use trial-and-error to solve problems. The ability to systematically solve a problem in a logical and methodical way emerges.
  35. 35. Educational Implications: Hughes , M. (1975) • Focus on the process of learning, rather than the end product of it. • Using active methods that require rediscovering or reconstructing "truths". • Using collaborative, as well as individual activities (so children can learn from each other). • Devising situations that present useful problems, and create disequilibrium in the child. • Evaluate the level of the child's development, so suitable tasks can be set.
  36. 36. Any Questions?
  37. 37. References • Central Advisory Council for Education (1967). Children and their Primary Schools ('The Plowden Report'), London: HMSO. • Dasen, P. (1994). Culture and cognitive development from a Piagetian perspective. In W .J. Lonner & R.S. Malpass (Eds.), Psychology and Culture. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. • Hughes , M. (1975). Egocentrism in preschool children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Edinburgh University. • Keating, D. (1979). Adolescent thinking. In J. Adelson (Ed.), Handbook of adolescent psychology, pp. 211-246. New York: Wiley. • McLeod, S. A. (2009). Jean Piaget | Cognitive Theory - Simply Psychology. Retrieved fromhttp://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
  38. 38. References • Piaget, J. (1932). The moral judgment of the child. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. • Piaget, J. (1936). Origins of intelligence in the child. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. • Piaget, J. (1945). Play, dreams and imitation in childhood. London: Heinemann. • Piaget, J. (1957). Construction of reality in the child. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul

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