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Clouds & precipitation: Nicole Irvine

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    Clouds & precipitation: Nicole Irvine Clouds & precipitation: Nicole Irvine Presentation Transcript

    • By: Nicole Irvine
    •  Definition: when air compresses it gets warmer, when it expands, it cools Air at high pressures, that compresses and heats to 10 degrees Celsius, moves downward; which is called dry adiabatic rate Air that cools after condensation begins and is http://www.bio.georgia released, heat then works southern.edu/bio- against the adiabatic home/harvey/lect/lectu res.html?ccode=el&mda cooling; which is called wet =scrn&flnm=abel&ttl=P adiabatic rate opulations%20and%20th eir%20environment
    •  Definition: elevated terrains act like barriers to air flow (Ex: Mountains) On a mountain, the windward side would be cold and moist; leeward side is dry and warm When air descends, it https://earthscience-in-the- warms adiabatically nationalparks.wikispaces.com/Death+ Valley
    •  Definition: large masses of warm and cold air meeting, causes a front When the two masses of air meet, colder air is denser and is like a barrier against the warmer air Fronts that are weather producing have to do geo.hunter.cuny.edu with specific storm systems; called middle- latitude cyclones
    •  Definition: when air in lower atmosphere flows together it then lifts May lead to adiabatic cooling and/or possible cloud formations Depending on patterns of air movement, thunderstorms may form or occur http://zebu.uoregon.edu/ph121/conv erge.html
    •  Unequal heating of Earth’s surface, on hot days, can cause pockets of air to be warmed more than the surrounding air Localized convective lifting is a process that produces rising thermals santasusana.org When parcels that are warm rise above the condensation level, clouds form
    •  If temperatures drop because of expansion its because the volume of the air was forced to rise Stable air: remains in it’s position; Unstable air: tends to rise Clouds that have air that’s academic2.american.edu unstable are more likely to cause thunderstorms/tornadoes
    •  Air must be saturated for condensation to occur For water vapor to condense, it must have a surface When condensation happens, air above the ground have condensation decorating.visitacasas.com nuclei appear When condensation takes place the growth rate of cloud droplets increase
    •  Cirrus: high, white, thin, wispy fibers Cumulus: flat base, appearance of rising towers windows2universe.org Stratus: sheets or layers that cover the sky
    •  3 types: Cirrus, Cirrostratus, Cirrocumulus All of these are thin, white, and made of ice crystals They aren’t considered eo.ucar.edu precipitation makers
    •  Appear at 2,000- 6,000 meters high Larger and denser than other clouds Light snow or drizzle may come from these clouds braindanceisawayoflife.blogspot.com
    •  3 types: Stratus, Stratocumulus, Nim bostratus May produce light precipitation “Nimbus”- means rainy in chr.wikipedia.org Latin “Stratus”- means cover w/ layer in Latin
    •  Some clouds don’t fit into specific categories Some have low height, and expand upward When upward movement happens kidsresearchexpress-3.blogspot.com and the acceleration is powerful, clouds then have great vertical range to form
    •  Has the same appearance and structure of a cloud Defined as a cloud with its base close to the ground Fog can produce in brainharmonycenter.com mornings or nights when Earth’s surface cools by radiation
    •  When water is cooled below 0 degrees Celsius its called “super cooled” Ice crystals grow as cloud droplets do, when they’re big enough they will fall When the surface temperature is above 4 degrees Celsius, physorg.com snowflakes will melt before reaching the ground
    •  Rainfall is related to clouds located below the freezing level Rain drops formed in warm clouds have a process called “collision- web.me.com coalescence” process When large droplets move through clouds they collide and coalesce
    •  In meteorology, rain means drops of water that fall from a cloud At low temperatures, light snow made of individual six-sided ice crystals may form Temperatures warmer madmikesamerica.com than -5 degrees Celsius, cause crystals to join in large clumps
    •  Small particles of clear ice is called sleet Sleet can form by a layer of air (with temperatures above freezing) overlie subfreezing near the ground Hail produces in cumulous clouds by ice pix.10tv.com pellets growing by collecting super cooled water droplets