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Clouds and precipitation


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  • 1. Clouds and Precipitation By: Jeanette Rivera
  • 2. Adiabatic Temperature changes and Expansion cooling• Heat not added or subtracted when temperature changes• Traveling up earths surface atmospheric pressure decreases because of fewer gas molecules• Dry adiabatic rate- rate of cooling and heating applied to unsaturated air.• Wet adiabatic rate- slower when cooling cause by latent heat.
  • 3. Orographic Lifting• Elevated terrains acting as barriers to air flow making orographic lifting occur.• Orographic air- lifts air• Most moisture is lost by the time air reaches leeward side of a mountain
  • 4. Frontal wedging• Warm air and cool air collide producing a front• In North America cooler denser makes warmer less dense air rise.• Warm is rising the cool air is toward the bottom forming rain
  • 5. Convergence• Air in the lower atmosphere flowing together makes the air go up which is called convergence• Pattern of air movement and uplifting is accompanied by solar heat• Florida experiences great amount of mid afternoon thunderstorms
  • 6. Localized Convective Lifting• Pockets of air may occur due to unequal heating on summer days• Rising parcel of warm air called thermals• Clouds form when warm parcel air rises above condensation
  • 7. Stability• Volume air rise- temperature decreases do to expansion• Volume air cooler- environment ,more denser• Stable air- resists vertical air
  • 8. Condensation• Occurs when water vapor  liquid• Water vapor  liquid can be in the form of dew, fog, or clouds• Air must be saturated before any of the forms of condensation occur
  • 9. Types of cloud• Cirrus and cumulus• Cirrus- white, thin, high clouds• Cumulus- rounded individual cloud masses.• Stratus- a cloud with layers that cover much of the sky
  • 10. High Clouds• Cirrus, Cirrostratus, and cirrocumulus make up a high cloud• White, thin and often made up of ice crystals• May leave a warn of stormy weather approaching
  • 11. Middle Clouds• In the middle and alto is part of their name• Is an altocumulus cloud which is denser and larger• Light snow or drizzle is infrequent
  • 12. Low Clouds• Stratus, Stratocumulus, and nimbostratus are all apart of the low cloud• May produce light precipitation• More towards the bottom and weather occurs more
  • 13. Clouds of Vertical Development• Clouds are more lower but stretch to higher or middle altitude• Associate with unstable air• Cumulonimbus cloud may produce rain showers or thunderstorms
  • 14. Fog• Fog formation- when earth surface cool rapidly on cool, calm, clear nights• Air more denser, making thick fog occur• Cool air evaporates over warm water producing saturation• Same structure and shape as a cloud
  • 15. Cold Cloud Precipitation• Cold air does not freeze at 0*C.• Water in liquid state at 0 degrees Celsius is called super cooled• Ice crystals cant coexist with water droplets in air due to super saturation on ice crystals
  • 16. Warm Cloud Precipitation• Warm clouds- mechanism forming water droplets in collision-coalescence process• Salt able to remove water vapor from the air at relative humidities• Large droplets moving through cloud collide and coalesce with smaller slower droplets
  • 17. Rain and Snow• Rain- drops of water fall from a cloud• Low temperature six sided ice crystals form which makes snow• At -5 degrees Celsius ice crystals join together as clumps
  • 18. Sleet, Glaze, and Hail• Sleet- fall of small particles of clear ice• Glaze-known as freezing rain, occurs when raindrops get super cooled• Hail-begin as small ice pellets, growing by collective super cooled water droplets.