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  1. 1. By William Deming
  2. 2.  When heat isn’t added or subtracted, they result in being compressed or expanding  Air expands as you elevate your position in the atmosphere  Air expands as it cools and air compresses as it warms
  3. 3.  Elevated terrains act as barriers to air flow  Once air has moved to the leeward side of say a mountain, most of it’s moisture has been lost. This affect is why most areas may be cut off by mountains yet be completely different on both sides. Ex: wet and moist on the windward, and then hot and dry on the leeward
  4. 4.  It is When masses of warm air and cold air collide  Cooler denser air acts as a barrier which the warmer less dense air rises over.
  5. 5.  When ever air in the lower atmosphere flows together  Because the flowing air cannot go down, cloud formations may occur
  6. 6.  During summer days unequal heating of earths surface may cause small areas of air to be heated up more then the surface it surrounds  This air will move upward since it is heated, helping animals like birds or humans during activities like hang gliding
  7. 7.  Stable air resists vertical movement  Unstable air rises freely  Clouds formed from the forced movement of this stable air are typically widespread and have little chance of precipitation. Clouds of unstable air typically tower and can cause thunderstorms
  8. 8.  When water vapor in the air changes into a liquid or a gas turning into a liquid state  Ex: rain, dew, fog, or clouds  Occurs when a vapor is cooled or compressed to its’ saturation limit
  9. 9.  Cirrus – Clouds in the atmosphere that are shown and are explained as thin wispy strands  Cumulus – More vertical in their development, they have edges that are easily visible  Stratus - Flat and hazy feature less clouds that may produce a drizzle of rain
  10. 10.  Ex: Cirrus, Cirrostratus, and cirrocumulus – 6000 meters  Not considered precipitation making clouds
  11. 11.  Altocumulus – 4000 meters  A light snow or drizzle may happen with these clouds
  12. 12.  Stratus, stratocumulus, and nimbostratus – 2000 meters  May produce light precipitation
  13. 13.  Bases in low height range, but they often reach upwards to the middle or high ranges  Can produce very strong rain showers or thunderstorms
  14. 14.  No physical difference between fog and a cloud, just height  Can form on cool nights where earths surface is cooled very fast by radiation . Later in the night a thin layer of air is cooled before dew point and becomes denser, thus fog  Cool air over warm water may evaporate and help create saturation , when this meets cold air, it condenses with warm air below
  15. 15.  The creation of precipitation in the cold mid to upper layer clouds.  Creates cold rain or ice crystals  Super cooled water droplets or ice crystals must be in the cloud together for the BP to occur
  16. 16.  Water absorbing particles like salt can remove the water vapor from the air and help create large raindrops  When these droplets move through a cloud, they form together with smaller droplets.
  17. 17.  Rain – Requires a think layer of the atmosphere that is above freezing and is caused by condensation of water vapors turned into droplets  Snow – Forms in a motion of upward air near a low pressure system where the temperature must be below freezing
  18. 18.  Sleet – clear ice formed by a layer of air above freezing temperatures that lays over a subfreezing layer near the ground  Glaze – occurs when freezing rain hits a surface and creates a formation or sheet of ice around or on an object  Hail – A solid precipitation, which forms in strong thunderstorms, mainly ones with very strong updrafts