Adiabatic temperature changes(expansion and cooling) Wet adiabatic rate is the process of air releasing latent heat as the process of condensation starts. When you travel up in the atmosphere there are fewer gas molecules, since there are fewer molecules the air begins to expand and cool when air goes deeper into our Earth the air pressure increases and the air condenses this rate of heating or cooling is called dry adiabatic rate.
Orographic lifting When any raised land or manmade feature blocks air flow orographic lifting begins. As air goes up a mountain side the adiabatic cooling begins and creates precipitation
Frontal Wedging When warm and cold air collides a front begins to form. At these fronts cool dense air acts as a barrier which blocks the warmer less dense air from raising this is called frontal wedging.
Convergence If air is coming from more than one direction it have only one place to go and that is up. When the air gets lifted into the air it leads to adiabatic cooling and possible cloud formation.
Localized Convective Lifting Is the constant flow of warmer air during days of uneven heating. This uneven heating cause thermal to form these thermal are air pockets that carry things in the air once the warm air have stopped flowing a cloud will form.
Stability Air that resists moving vertically is called stable air Unstable air rises freely Clouds will not form where stable conditions are present. Stable air clouds are very wide but have small vertical height. Unstable clouds are high over the surface and generate thunderstorm or maybe a tornado.
Condensation Condensation is a process that happens when water vapor in the air changes to a liquid(air must be saturated) If there is not a surface of water vapor to condense on condensation will not happen Condensation nuclei are the surface needed for water vapor to condense if nuclei are not there a relative humidity much 100 percent is needed
Types of clouds There are 3 basic forms of cloud cirrus, cumulus, and stratus clouds are put into these categories based on the form and height. Cirrus- clouds that are high and thin have a faded streak like appearance Stratus-are very flat and act as a blanket because the cover they entire sky Cumulus-these clouds are made up of many other cloud masses in my opinion they look like explosions with a flat base.
High clouds 3 types of clouds are in the “high cloud” region cirrus, cirrostratus, and cirrocumulus All high clouds are thin white streaks often made of ice crystal These types of clouds are often called precipitation makers but if these clouds begin to cover most of the sky they could warm oncoming rain clouds.
Middle clouds Middle clouds are composed of rounded masses Altocumulus are large dense cloud These clouds create grayish white sheets across the sky
Low Clouds Three member stratus, stratocumulus, nimbostratus Dark fogy layer of clouds Produce light precipitation
Clouds of vertical development These clouds do not fit into the 3 cloud height categories Associated with unstable air
Fog Created by radiation cooling or the movement of air above a cold surface. Fog is defined by having its base close to or on the ground Cooling, causes clouds when warm moist air moves over a cold surface (land or water) then is carried into show by prevailing winds also fog can be caused at night when the earth cools quickly and air is in contact with the ground
Cold cloud precipitation Is formed by the Bergeron process Ice crystals grow at the expense of cloud droplets until they are large enough to fall
Warm Cloud Precipitation Is formed by the collision and coalescence process When the relative humidity is below 100% water absorbing particles such as salt remove water droplets from cloud. These removed drop run into other small slower droplets and fall to the ground.
Rain and Snow Rain is a drop of water that come from clouds and are bigger the .5mm Rain is caused by melting ice crystals in temperatures above 4 degrees Celsius Snow is formed at very low temperature and is made up of ice crystals that join together into larger snowflakes
Sleet, Glaze and Hail Sleet is the fall of small articles of clear or see threw ice for this to form a layer of air with temperature below freezing must overlie and subfreezing layer. Glaze happens when rain drops become “super-cooled” below 0 degrees Celsius Hail- hailstones begin in cumulonimbus clouds and grow bigger by collecting super- cooled water droplets as they fall through other clouds