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  1. 1. By: Luke Wood
  2. 2. Adiabatic temperature changes (expansion and cooling)  Wet adiabatic rate is the process of air releasing latent heat as the process of condensation starts.  When you travel up in the atmosphere there are fewer gas molecules, since there are fewer molecules the air begins to expand and cool  when air goes deeper into our Earth the air pressure increases and the air condenses this rate of heating or cooling is called dry adiabatic rate.
  3. 3. Orographic lifting  When any raised land or manmade feature blocks air flow orographic lifting begins.  As air goes up a mountain side the adiabatic cooling begins and creates precipitation
  4. 4. Frontal Wedging  When warm and cold air collides a front begins to form. At these fronts cool dense air acts as a barrier which blocks the warmer less dense air from raising this is called frontal wedging.
  5. 5. Convergence  If air is coming from more than one direction it have only one place to go and that is up.  When the air gets lifted into the air it leads to adiabatic cooling and possible cloud formation.
  6. 6. Localized Convective Lifting  Is the constant flow of warmer air during days of uneven heating. This uneven heating cause thermal to form these thermal are air pockets that carry things in the air once the warm air have stopped flowing a cloud will form.
  7. 7. Stability  Air that resists moving vertically is called stable air Unstable air rises freely  Clouds will not form where stable conditions are present. Stable air clouds are very wide but have small vertical height.  Unstable clouds are high over the surface and generate thunderstorm or maybe a tornado.
  8. 8. Condensation  Condensation is a process that happens when water vapor in the air changes to a liquid(air must be saturated)  If there is not a surface of water vapor to condense on condensation will not happen  Condensation nuclei are the surface needed for water vapor to condense if nuclei are not there a relative humidity much 100 percent is needed
  9. 9. Types of clouds  There are 3 basic forms of cloud cirrus, cumulus, and stratus clouds are put into these categories based on the form and height.  Cirrus- clouds that are high and thin have a faded streak like appearance  Stratus-are very flat and act as a blanket because the cover they entire sky  Cumulus-these clouds are made up of many other cloud masses in my opinion they look like explosions with a flat base.
  10. 10. High clouds  3 types of clouds are in the “high cloud” region cirrus, cirrostratus, and cirrocumulus  All high clouds are thin white streaks often made of ice crystal  These types of clouds are often called precipitation makers but if these clouds begin to cover most of the sky they could warm oncoming rain clouds.
  11. 11. Middle clouds  Middle clouds are composed of rounded masses  Altocumulus are large dense cloud  These clouds create grayish white sheets across the sky
  12. 12. Low Clouds  Three member stratus, stratocumulus, nimbostratus  Dark fogy layer of clouds  Produce light precipitation
  13. 13. Clouds of vertical development  These clouds do not fit into the 3 cloud height categories  Associated with unstable air
  14. 14. Fog  Created by radiation cooling or the movement of air above a cold surface.  Fog is defined by having its base close to or on the ground  Cooling, causes clouds when warm moist air moves over a cold surface (land or water) then is carried into show by prevailing winds also fog can be caused at night when the earth cools quickly and air is in contact with the ground
  15. 15. Cold cloud precipitation  Is formed by the Bergeron process  Ice crystals grow at the expense of cloud droplets until they are large enough to fall
  16. 16. Warm Cloud Precipitation  Is formed by the collision and coalescence process  When the relative humidity is below 100% water absorbing particles such as salt remove water droplets from cloud. These removed drop run into other small slower droplets and fall to the ground.
  17. 17. Rain and Snow  Rain is a drop of water that come from clouds and are bigger the .5mm  Rain is caused by melting ice crystals in temperatures above 4 degrees Celsius  Snow is formed at very low temperature and is made up of ice crystals that join together into larger snowflakes
  18. 18. Sleet, Glaze and Hail  Sleet is the fall of small articles of clear or see threw ice for this to form a layer of air with temperature below freezing must overlie and subfreezing layer.  Glaze happens when rain drops become “super-cooled” below 0 degrees Celsius  Hail- hailstones begin in cumulonimbus clouds and grow bigger by collecting super- cooled water droplets as they fall through other clouds
  19. 19. THE END
  20. 20. WORK CITED  http://cl0uds.wordpress.com/2009/02/04/14/ slide 1  http://www.bio.georgiasouthern.edu/bio- home/harvey/lect/lectures.html slide 2  http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Ce-Cr/Climate-Moderator- Water-as-a.html slide 3  http://www.wou.edu/las/physci/taylor/gs106/atm2_precip_files/frame .htm#slide0004.htm slide 4  http://www.sci.uidaho.edu/scripter/geog100/lect/05-atmos-water- wx/05-part-7-atmos-lifting-fronts/ch5-part-7a-atmos-liftin.htm slide 5  https://www.meted.ucar.edu/sign_in.php?go_back_to=http%253A% 252F%252Fwww.meted.ucar.edu%252Fnorlat%252Fsnow%252Fla ke_effect%252Fprint_whole.htm slide 6  http://ocw.usu.edu/Forest__Range__and_Wildlife_Sciences/Wildlan d_Fire_Management_and_Planning/Unit_7__Atmospheric_Stability _and_Instability_1.html slide 7
  21. 21. WORK CITED  http://www.westendwindows.co.uk/condensation/ slide 8  http://eo.ucar.edu/webweather/cloud3.html slide 9  http://www.allstar.fiu.edu/aerojava/fltenv3.htm slide 10  http://www.beijinghikers.com/v2/resources/news/hiking- photos-switchback-great-wall-2009-12-16/ slide 11  http://anthonyjstewart.wordpress.com/2009/05/28/chicago- low-clouds-and-mist/ slide 12  http://apollo.lsc.vsc.edu/classes/met130/notes/chapter6/lift_i ntro.html slide 13  http://articles.sfgate.com/2005-08-19/news/17387430_1_fog- san-francisco-bay-area-summer slide 14  http://www.liveweatherblogs.com/weatherblog/5568/Clouds- Precipitation-as-earth-s-thermostat slide 15
  22. 22. WORK CITED  http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/introductio n-to-the-basic-drivers-of-climate-13368032 slide 16  http://www.cco.caltech.edu/~atomic/snowcrystals/ slide 17  http://www.kaiserroof.com/hail/ slide 18