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  • 1. Clouds andPrecipitation By: Eric Dzieniszewski
  • 2. Adiabatic Temperatures Changes•When air expands it cools, then whenit compressed it is warm•Expansion (dry adiabatic rate) is arate of cooling or heating only tounsaturated air. As you go up throughthe atmosphere the pressure decrease,this happens because there is less gasmolecules•Cooling (wet adiabatic rate), is abovethe condensation level, it rise 5 Celsiusfor every 1000 meters
  • 3. Orographic Lifting•As air goes up mountain slopes the adiabaticcooling creates clouds and precipitation•This process only occurs because of themountains or elevated terrain acts as walls ofbarrier
  • 4. Frontal Wedging•When a cold front meets a warm front andthe cooler front which is more denser acts asa wall over when the warmer less dense airrises
  • 5. Convergence•Collision of contrasting air mass forces airto rise
  • 6. • Stability is measured by using temps. of atmospheres at various heights• Temperature decreases as altitude increases• When clouds make contact with up lifted air it usually creates thunderstorms, and maybe a tornadoStability
  • 7. Localized Convective•On warm summer days, unequal Liftingheating of Earth’s surface may causepockets of air to be warmed more thansurrounding air•Spots and parcels are called thermals•Stability is measured by using temps.of atmospheres at various heights•Temperature decreases as altitudeincreases•When clouds make contact with uplifted air it usually createsthunderstorms, and maybe a tornado
  • 8.  For any condensation to be formed air must be saturated Types of clouds:Stratus- covers most of the sky.Cumulus- have flat bases, described as cauliflower structure, they are round individual cloud masses.Cirrus- white and thin, they come in groups of patches. Condensation
  • 9.  Family of high clouds; cirrus, cirrostratus, and cirrocumulus High clouds are thin and whiteHigh clouds
  • 10.  Prefix of alto- as part of their names Large and dense Clouds that appear in middle range are about 2000 to 6000 meters above groundMiddle Clouds
  • 11.  Three members- stratus, stratocumulus, and nimbostratus Produce light precipitation Stratus clouds like a fog layer that covers most of the sky Nimbostratus are the rain makersLow Clouds
  • 12.  All clouds are related and associate with unstable air Once there is up ward movement, clouds form with vertical range, when this happens cumulonimbus makes rain and thunderstormClouds and Vertical Development
  • 13.  Fog is defined as a cloud with its base at or very near the ground Fog is caused by radiation cooling or the movement of air over a cold surface can also form when enough water vapor is added to the air to bring about saturation Caused by cooling- as air becomes cooler then gets denser and drains into to fiver valleys Caused by evaporation- when it covers over lakes in fall and early wintersFog
  • 14.  Bergeron process – two physical processes: super cooling and super saturation Super cooled- liquid state below 0 Celsius. Super saturated- it has greater than 100 % humidityCold Cloud Precipitation
  • 15.  Collision-coalescence process- it is a mechanism that forms raindrops Large droplets go through sky they collide with other small and slower dropletsWarm Cloud Precipitation
  • 16.  In meteorology rain means drops of water that falls from a cloud and has a diameter of at least .5 mm. Smaller drops are called drizzle When temperature is low light fluffy snow comes down, if temperature is warmer then -5 degrees Celsius they join togetherRain and Snow
  • 17.  Sleet- of small particles of clear to-transparent ice. For it to form a layer of air with temperatures above freezing must overlie a subfreezing layer near the ground. Glaze- is also known as freezing rain, this happens when the rain drops get supercooled and fall through subfreezing air they turn into ice. Hail- produced in cumulonimbus clouds. First start out as ice pellets then they get bigger as they collect supercooled water droplets as they go through the cloud. Ice pellets can go back up and then back down if they emerge with an updraft.Sleet, Glaze, and Hail
  • 18. 1st slide picture- clouds_guardian.jpg2nd slide picture-adiabatic.jpg3rd slide picture- figure_02-20.jpg4th slide picture- frontal.wedging.jpg5th slide picture-cnvrg1.gif6th slide picture- 675_173_107-different-types-cloud-nome nclature7th slide picture-Instability_20Diagram.jpg8th slide picture- cumulonimbus.jpg9th , 10th , and 11th slide picture-clouds.GIFPictures sited
  • 19. 12th slide picture- cloud-types.gif13th slide picture- fog.jpg14th and 15th slide picture- fig-6.JPG16th slide picture- rain-and-snow1.jpg17th slide picture-hail.jpgPictures cited continued…
  • 20. The End!!