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  1. 1. By: Courtney Smith
  2. 2. arm.html Adiabatic Temperature Changes and Expansion and Cooling  Temperature changes that happen even though heat isn’t added or subtracted from the atmosphere are adiabatic temperature changes.  Air that is not saturated cools 10 degrees Celsius for every 1000 meters it goes is the dry adiabatic rate.  Wet adiabatic cooling is when air rises and condensation begins to happen, then latent heat in water vapor from condensation is released.  http://apollo.lsc.vsc.edu/classes/met130/notes/chapter6/adiab_warm.html 
  3. 3. Orographic Lifting When land masses, such as mountains, block air flow, orographic lifting of the air happens. Clouds and precipitation occur due to adiabatic cooling and cause precipitation. Much of the air’s humidity is lost when air reaches the leeward side of the mountain. http://www.examiner.com/outdoorsman-in-salt-lake-city/understanding-why- utah-has-the-greatest-snow-on-earth-part-1-orographic-lifting
  4. 4. Frontal Wedging A front is when hot air and cold air meet in the atmosphere. Frontal wedging is when cool and dense air barriers warm and less dense air that is rising. Storm-system weather fronts are also known as middle latitude cyclones. http://www.wou.edu/las/physci/taylor/gs106/atm2_precip_files/frame. htm#slide0004.htm
  5. 5. Convergence Convergence is when air in the lower part of the atmosphere flows together and causes lifting. Florida’s weather is an example of convergence. When air flows in more than one direction, it begins to rise. It leads to adiabatic cooling and sometimes cloud formation.
  6. 6. Localized Convective Lifting Thermals: Rising clumps of air warmer than the air around it. Localized Convective Lifting: The process that makes the rising thermals. Clouds can form when the warm air clumps rise above the condensation level. http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect14/Sect14_1c.html
  7. 7. Stability Stable air resists moving upward. Unstable air rises as stable air stays in the same place. When air increases with height, air is the most stable. This is a temperature inversion.
  8. 8. Condensation Air must be saturated for condensation to happen. Condensation nuclei occur when there is condensation in the air above the ground. When condensation nuclei is in the air, relative humidity goes over 100% http://keep3.sjfc.edu/students/kes00898/e-port/condensation%20page%20for%20unit.html
  9. 9. Types of Clouds Clouds are classified by form and height. Cirrus clouds are thin, white, and high in the air. Cumulounds clouds are round, individual clouds. Stratus clouds are big clouds that cover almost the whole sky. http://eo.ucar.edu/webweather/cloud3.html
  10. 10. High Clouds Cirrocumulous clouds are fluffy clouds. Cirrostratus clouds are flatter clouds. Cirrus clounds are high, white, and thin clouds.
  11. 11. Middle Clouds Altocumulouds clouds are large, dense, and round clouds. Altostratus clouds are white and grayish clouds that cover the sky, moon, and sun but they are still noticeable through it. Middle clouds are from 2000 to 6000 meters in the air. http://www.allstar.fiu.edu/aero/fltenv3.htm
  12. 12. Clouds of Verticle Development Most start in the low range but are vertically long and go to the high or medium ranges in the air. Caused by unstable air. Made by upward movement, and powerful acceleration. http://www.free-online-private-pilot-ground-school.com/Aviation-Weather-Principles.html
  13. 13. Low Clouds Stratus clouds are clouds that look like fog and cover the sky. Stratocumulus clouds are clouds that have a scalloped bottom that looks like long rods or patches. Nimbostratus clouds are rain clouds. http://www.free-online-private-pilot-ground-school.com/Aviation-Weather-Principles.html
  14. 14. Fog A cloud that is very close to the ground. Happens when Earth cools rapidly by radiation. Cool air goes over warm water, evaporation occurs, air becomes saturated, and water vapor meets cold air and it condenses and mixes with the warm air being warmed. http://photoshoptutorials.ws/photoshop-tutorials/photo-effects/fog.html
  15. 15. Cold Cloud Precipitation Supercooled water is water in the liquid state at 0 degrees Celcius that will freeze when it hits a solid object. When air is saturated with water, it is supersaturated with ice. http://nanopatentsandinnovations.blogspot.com/2010/06/amount-of-dust-pollen-matters-for-cloud.html
  16. 16. Warm Cloud Precipitation The collision-coalescence process is the process that creates raindrops. Particles, such as salt, in the air absorb water so realitive humidity goes below 100% makeing large rain drops. The large drops go through the cloud and they join with smaller water droplets. https://www.meted.ucar.edu/sign_in.php?go_back_to=http%253A%252F%252Fwww.meted.ucar.edu %252Ftropical%252Ftextbook_2nd_edition%252Fprint_5.htm
  17. 17. Rain and Snow Snowflakes usually melt when the temerature at the surface is above 4 degrees Celcius, so snowflakes usually melt before they hit the ground. When there is a low humidity, snow crystals form. Snow crystals mix together into clumps when the temerature is above -5 degrees celcius. http://kohd.com/page/213587 http://roymiller.hubpages.com/hub/quotes-about-rain
  18. 18. Sleet, Glaze, and Hail Sleet is small pieces of ice falling from the clouds. Glaze is freezing rain that happens when rain is supercooled. Hail is small ice pieces that grow as they fall by collecting supercooled water. Hail can become very, very large. Some can even be the size of softballs. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sleet_on_the_ground.jpg http://www.tornadochaser.net/hail.html
  19. 19. The End!
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