arm.html Adiabatic Temperature Changes and Expansion and Cooling Temperature changes that happen even though heat isn’t added or subtracted from the atmosphere are adiabatic temperature changes. Air that is not saturated cools 10 degrees Celsius for every 1000 meters it goes is the dry adiabatic rate. Wet adiabatic cooling is when air rises and condensation begins to happen, then latent heat in water vapor from condensation is released. http://apollo.lsc.vsc.edu/classes/met130/notes/chapter6/adiab_warm.html
Orographic Lifting When land masses, such as mountains, block air flow, orographic lifting of the air happens. Clouds and precipitation occur due to adiabatic cooling and cause precipitation. Much of the air’s humidity is lost when air reaches the leeward side of the mountain. http://www.examiner.com/outdoorsman-in-salt-lake-city/understanding-why- utah-has-the-greatest-snow-on-earth-part-1-orographic-lifting
Frontal Wedging A front is when hot air and cold air meet in the atmosphere. Frontal wedging is when cool and dense air barriers warm and less dense air that is rising. Storm-system weather fronts are also known as middle latitude cyclones. http://www.wou.edu/las/physci/taylor/gs106/atm2_precip_files/frame. htm#slide0004.htm
Convergence Convergence is when air in the lower part of the atmosphere flows together and causes lifting. Florida’s weather is an example of convergence. When air flows in more than one direction, it begins to rise. It leads to adiabatic cooling and sometimes cloud formation.
Localized Convective Lifting Thermals: Rising clumps of air warmer than the air around it. Localized Convective Lifting: The process that makes the rising thermals. Clouds can form when the warm air clumps rise above the condensation level. http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect14/Sect14_1c.html
Stability Stable air resists moving upward. Unstable air rises as stable air stays in the same place. When air increases with height, air is the most stable. This is a temperature inversion.
Condensation Air must be saturated for condensation to happen. Condensation nuclei occur when there is condensation in the air above the ground. When condensation nuclei is in the air, relative humidity goes over 100% http://keep3.sjfc.edu/students/kes00898/e-port/condensation%20page%20for%20unit.html
Types of Clouds Clouds are classified by form and height. Cirrus clouds are thin, white, and high in the air. Cumulounds clouds are round, individual clouds. Stratus clouds are big clouds that cover almost the whole sky. http://eo.ucar.edu/webweather/cloud3.html
High Clouds Cirrocumulous clouds are fluffy clouds. Cirrostratus clouds are flatter clouds. Cirrus clounds are high, white, and thin clouds.
Middle Clouds Altocumulouds clouds are large, dense, and round clouds. Altostratus clouds are white and grayish clouds that cover the sky, moon, and sun but they are still noticeable through it. Middle clouds are from 2000 to 6000 meters in the air. http://www.allstar.fiu.edu/aero/fltenv3.htm
Clouds of Verticle Development Most start in the low range but are vertically long and go to the high or medium ranges in the air. Caused by unstable air. Made by upward movement, and powerful acceleration. http://www.free-online-private-pilot-ground-school.com/Aviation-Weather-Principles.html
Low Clouds Stratus clouds are clouds that look like fog and cover the sky. Stratocumulus clouds are clouds that have a scalloped bottom that looks like long rods or patches. Nimbostratus clouds are rain clouds. http://www.free-online-private-pilot-ground-school.com/Aviation-Weather-Principles.html
Fog A cloud that is very close to the ground. Happens when Earth cools rapidly by radiation. Cool air goes over warm water, evaporation occurs, air becomes saturated, and water vapor meets cold air and it condenses and mixes with the warm air being warmed. http://photoshoptutorials.ws/photoshop-tutorials/photo-effects/fog.html
Cold Cloud Precipitation Supercooled water is water in the liquid state at 0 degrees Celcius that will freeze when it hits a solid object. When air is saturated with water, it is supersaturated with ice. http://nanopatentsandinnovations.blogspot.com/2010/06/amount-of-dust-pollen-matters-for-cloud.html
Warm Cloud Precipitation The collision-coalescence process is the process that creates raindrops. Particles, such as salt, in the air absorb water so realitive humidity goes below 100% makeing large rain drops. The large drops go through the cloud and they join with smaller water droplets. https://www.meted.ucar.edu/sign_in.php?go_back_to=http%253A%252F%252Fwww.meted.ucar.edu %252Ftropical%252Ftextbook_2nd_edition%252Fprint_5.htm
Rain and Snow Snowflakes usually melt when the temerature at the surface is above 4 degrees Celcius, so snowflakes usually melt before they hit the ground. When there is a low humidity, snow crystals form. Snow crystals mix together into clumps when the temerature is above -5 degrees celcius. http://kohd.com/page/213587 http://roymiller.hubpages.com/hub/quotes-about-rain
Sleet, Glaze, and Hail Sleet is small pieces of ice falling from the clouds. Glaze is freezing rain that happens when rain is supercooled. Hail is small ice pieces that grow as they fall by collecting supercooled water. Hail can become very, very large. Some can even be the size of softballs. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sleet_on_the_ground.jpg http://www.tornadochaser.net/hail.html