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5 pbean

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a science project

a science project

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
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  • 1. CLOUDS AND PRECIPITATION PROJECT BY: Paul Bean Picture site:http://science.nationalgeographic.com/ science/photos/clouds/
  • 2. ADIABATIC TEMPERATURE CHANGES AND EXPANSION AND COOLING• Temperature changes that happen even though heat isn’t added or taken away are called adiabatic temperature changes• They are the result of air being compressed or allowing air to expand• as you travel up from earths surface, atmospheric pressure decreases because of fewer gas molecules• Picture site: http://apollo.lsc.vsc.edu/classes/met130/notes/c hapter6/adiab_cool.html
  • 3. OROGRAPHIC LIFTING• Happens when elevated terrain, such as mountains, act as barriers to air flow• As air goes up, adiabatic cooling causes clouds and precipitation• When air reaches leeward side, it warms adiabatically, causing few clouds and rain shadow• Picture site : http://www.examiner.com/outdoorsman-in-salt- lake-city/understanding-why-utah-has-the- greatest-snow-on-earth-part-1-orographic-lifting
  • 4. FRONTAL WEDGING• Without it, the center of America would be a desert• In central North America, masses of warm air and cold air collide, producing a front• At a front, cool dense air acts as a barrier over which the warm less dense air rises, this process is called frontal wedging• Picture site : http://www.geo.hunter.cuny.edu/~tbw/wc.notes /4.moisture.atm.stability/frontal_wedging.htm
  • 5. CONVERGENCE• It’s whenever air in the lower atmosphere flows together• Goes up because must go somewhere, can’t go down• Leads to clouds and adiabatic cooling• Picture site : http://10.85.0.4:8080/ibreports/ibp/bp.html?fn= Students&fp=1&bu=www.islandnet.com/~see/w eather/elements/whatgoesup3.htm&bc=Website +contains+prohibited+Web-Based+E- mail+content.&ip=173.49.166.199
  • 6. LOCALIZED CONVECTIVE LIFTING• The process that produces rising thermals• Birds use the thermals to go high in the sky and look down on their prey• May produce mid-afternoon rain showers• Picture site: http://www.richhoffmanclass.com/chapter4.h tml
  • 7. STABILITY(DENSITY DIFFERENCES AND STABILITY AND DAILY WEATHER)• Stable air resists vertical movement• If a volume of rising air was warmer and less dense than he surrounding air, it would continue to rise until it would reach an altitude where its temperature equaled its surroundings, this is how hot air balloons work• Classified as unstable air• Picture site: http://ocw.usu.edu/Forest__Range__and_Wildlife_Scie nces/Wildland_Fire_Management_and_Planning/Unit _7__Atmospheric_Stability_and_Instability_1.html
  • 8. CONDENSATION• Happens when water vapor turns into a liquid• Could be dew fog or clouds• For any forms to happen, the air must become saturated, normally when the air reaches its dew point• Picture site: http://keep3.sjfc.edu/students/kes00898/e- port/condensation%20page%20for%20unit.ht ml
  • 9. TYPES OF CLOUDS• Classified on the basis of their form and height• Cirrus(cirrus=a curl of hair),Cumulus(cumulus=a pile), and Stratus(stratum= a layer)• High, middle, and low clouds• Picture site: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/ astronomy/planets/earth/clouds/
  • 10. HIGH CLOUDS• Three types, Cirrus, Cirrostratus, made of flat layers and Cirrocumulus, fluffy masses.• Don’t normally cause bad weather due to height freezing water.• Comprised of ice and minimal amounts of water due to altitude.• Picture site: http://cluods.blogspot.com/p/introduction- cloud-is-composed-of.html
  • 11. MIDDLE CLOUDS• Altocumulus and altostratus• Cause infrequent drizzling(rain)and light snow• Altocumulus clouds are larger and denser than cirrocumulus• Picture site: http://cluods.blogspot.com/p/introduction- cloud-is-composed-of.html
  • 12. LOW CLOUDS• Stratus, fog like, stratocumulus, scalloped bottom and nimbostratus, causes most rain• Nimbostratus’s Latin name means rainy cloud to cover with a layer• Nimbostratus clouds form under stable conditions• Picture site: http://cluods.blogspot.com/p/introduction- cloud-is-composed-of.html
  • 13. CLOUDS OF VERTICAL DEVELOPMENT• Some clouds don’t fit into any of the above cloud formations• These types of clouds are in the low height area, yet can extend to the middle and high height ranges• They are all related to one another and are associated with unstable air• Picture snipped from Prentice Hall Book Website
  • 14. FOG(BY COOLING AND EVAPORATION)• Can form when earth cools rapidly by radiation• Can be caused when cool air moves over a warm body of water to produce saturation• Common over lakes in fall and early winter• Picture site: http://lupusincolor.blogspot.com/2011/01/lup us-fog.html
  • 15. COLD CLOUD PRECIPITATION(BERGERON PROCESS)• Relies on super cooling and super saturation• Whatever water the supercooled water touches, it freezes that water• Supersaturation allows more water to the ice crystal to grow• Picture site: http://www.sleepingdogstudios.com/Network /Earth%20Science/ES_18_Rev_files/frame.ht m#slide0021.htm
  • 16. WARM CLOUD PRECIPITATION(COLLISION- COALESCENCE PROCESS)• Makes most precipitation• Water absorbing particles remove water vapor from the air at relative humidities less than 100%, allowing drops to be very large• As these large drops move along, they join with smaller and slower drops• Picture site: http://www.cbs6albany.com/sections/weathe r/research/topics/topicfive/
  • 17. RAIN AND SNOW• Definition of rain is specifically drops of water that fall from a cloud and have a diameter of at least 0.5 mm• Anything smaller is called a drizzle• At very low temperatures, light fluffy snow forms• Picture site: http://www.istockphoto.com/stock-photo- 2507583-ice-rain-and-snow.php
  • 18. SLEET, GLAZE AND HAIL• Sleet is the fall of clear to translucent ice• Glaze is when ice drops are supercooled as they fall through subfreezing air near the ground• Hail is produced in cumulonimbus clouds, they start as ice pellets that grow by collecting supercooled water droplets as they fall through a cloud• Picture site: http://www.lifeslittlemysteries.com/676- how-big-was-the-biggest-hailstone-ever.html
  • 19. THEEND!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! By: Paul Bean Picture site: http://www.flickr.com/photos/2703267 3@N02/2615193708/

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