Adiabatic temperature changes
and expansion and cooling
When temperature changes even
though there has been no changes to
It happens because air gets compressed
and is allowed to expand.
Orographic lifting is when elevated land,
like mountains, act like a barrier to air
Frontal wedging is when cooler, denser
air acts as a barrier over which the
warmer less dense air rises.
Convergence is whenever air in the
lower atmosphere flows together lifting
Localized convective lifting
Pockets of air being warmed more than
the surrounding air.
If a volume of air was forced to rise, its
temperature would drop because of
If this volume of air was cooler than the
surrounding environment, it would be
denser, and if allowed to do so, it would
sink to its original position.
When water vapor in the air changes to
Types of clouds
Types of clouds are based on their
shape and height
There are three high cloud types:
Middle clouds are about 2,000-6,000
All middle clouds have alto before their
Stratus clouds are the clouds that
usually cover most of the sky.
Sometimes they produce precipitation.
Nimbostratus create most of the
Clouds of vertical development
Clouds of vertical development have low
bases but extend upward.
Fog is physically the same as a cloud.
Fog is the result of radiation cooling or
the movement of air over a cold surface.
Fog is on the ground.
Cold cloud precipitation (Bergeron
The Bergeron process relies on
supercooling and supersaturation.
Water that is below o degrees Celsius is
When air is saturated it is
Warm cloud precipitation
In warm clouds, clouds are formed by
the collision-coalescence process.
Some water absorbing particles can
remove water vapor from the air when it
is not saturated.
Rain and snow
Rain is a drop of water that falls from a
cloud and has a diameter of at least 0.5
When the temperature is low, snow is
made up of six sided ice crystals.
Sleet, glaze, and hail
Sleet is particles falling of clear ice.
Glaze happens when raindrops become
Hail is smalls ice pellets.