Adiabatic Temperature Changes and Expansion and Cooling• When compressed air, gas molecules increase the temperature rises, expanding air pushes the surrounding air, cooling an amount equal the energy used up.• Adiabatic temperature changes results when air is compressed and allowed to expand.• The more you travel up through the Earth’s surface the fewer gas molecules making air move upward causing it to pass through regions with low pressure calling it the ascending air expands and cools.
Orographic lifting• As airflows goes up on the windward side of a mountain makes it the rainiest place.• As airflows down the leeward side of a mountain makes it a rain shadow desert.• When mountains act like barriers to airflow that’s when Orographic lifting of air occurs.
Frontal wedging• North America, masses is warm air and cold air collide.• North America the cooler, denser air acts as a barrier over which the warmer, less dense air rises.
Convergence• Whenever air in the lower atmosphere comes together is called convergence.• When there is more airflows coming in more then one direction it goes up.• Convergence can cause cloud development and precipitation
Localized Convective lifting• The different air temperature is caused by the unequal heating of Earth’s surface.• The warmer and less dense then the surrounding air will move upward.• Rising partials of warm air are called thermals which is localized convective lifting.
Stability (Density Differences and Stability and Daily Weather)• Volume of air was cooler then the surrounding environment, would be denser, if allowed to do it would sink to its original position.• Air is less dense then the surrounding air it will continue to rise until it reaches a temperature equal to the soundings.• When clouds have unstable air it will create a thunderstorm.
Condensation• Happens when water vapor in the air changes to a liquid.• In order for this to occur the air must be saturated.
Types of clouds• Three basic forms are cirrcus, cumulus, and stratus and the other clouds reflect one of these three or a combination of them.• Cirrcus clouds you can barley see but there stretched balls.• Cumulus are clouds that look like really big cotton balls.
High clouds• High clouds are made up of ice crystals most of the time.• High clouds have ice crystals in them because the low temperature and small quantities of water vapor.
Middle clouds• Are larger and denser• Light snow or drizzle may occur with these clouds
Low clouds• There are three parts of a low cloud their called stratus, stratocumulus, and nimbostratus.• Low clouds are gray/black and are clouds that are going to rain really hard.
Clouds of vertical development• Often extend upward in the middle or high altitudes.• Upward movement is triggered clouds with great vertical range are formed
Fog (by cooling and by evaporation)• Fog forms on cool, clear, calm nights when the Earth’s air is cooling rapidly.• When cool air meets warm water it makes the top water evaporate making it into fog
Cold cloud precipitation• Bergeron process is supper cooling and supper saturation.• The smaller the cloud droplets the bigger the snow crystal gets.• The bigger the snow crystal gets it will fall.
Warm cloud Precipitation• Salt can remove water vapor from the air at humitites less then 100 percent.• The large droplets move through the cloud and join together with smaller droplets.
Rain and Snow• Rain droops of water falling from the clouds with different shapes.
Sleet, Glaze, and Hail• Sleet are small particles of clear ice.• Glaze is freezing rain but when they hit an object they turn into ice.• Hail starts out as small ice pellets that when collecting super cold water pellets make them bigger.