Clouds and Precipitation
 By: Lexi Montgomery
 http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/cld/h
ome.rxml
Adiabatic Temperature Changes
and Expansion and Cooling
 Adiabatic temperature changes are temperature
changes that happe...
Orographic lifting
 Orographic lifting of air occurs when elevated terrains,
such as mountains, act as barriers to air fl...
Frontal wedging
 The boundary between colliding warm and cold air is a
front.
 The process that occurs at a front which ...
Convergence
 The lifting of air that results from air in the lower
atmosphere flowing together is convergence.
 http://w...
Localized Convective Lifting
 When unequal heating of Earth’s surface warms a
pocket of air more than the surrounding air...
Stability (Density Differences &
Stability and Daily Weather)
 When air temperature increases with height is when
the mos...
Condensation
 When condensation occurs in the air above the
ground, little pieces of a specific matter , called
condensat...
Types of Clouds
 Cirrus clouds are high in the sky, white and thin. These
types of clouds occur as patches or as delicate...
High Clouds
 3 cloud tpes make up the family of high clouds. Cirrus,
cirrostratus, and cirrocumulus.
 Cirrocumulus cloud...
Middle Clouds
 Clouds that appear in the middle range (2,000-6,000
meters)
 Altocumulus clouds are rounded and differ fr...
Low Clouds
 3 types of low clouds; stratus, stratocumulus, &
nimbostratus.
 Stratus clouds have a fog-like layer that co...
Clouds of Vertical Development
 Some clouds don’t fit into the 3 categories
 When upward movement happens acceleration
h...
Fog (by cooling and by
evaporation)
 Fog can form on warm and cool air.
 As the night progresses, a thin layer of air in...
Cold Cloud Precipitation (Bergeron
process)
 The Bergeron process is a theory that relates the
formation of precipitation...
Warm Cloud Precipitation
(collision-coalescence process)
 Supersaturated is when air is saturated (100% realative
humidit...
Rain and Snow
 Rain means drops of water that fall from a cloud and
have a diameter of at least 0.5 mm.
 At temperatures...
Sleet, Glaze and Hail
 Sleet is the fall of small particles of clear to translucent
ice.
 Glaze (freezing rain) is when ...
 THEEEEEEE ENDDDDDD!!!!
 http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/synoptic/precip.ht
m
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  1. 1. Clouds and Precipitation  By: Lexi Montgomery  http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/cld/h ome.rxml
  2. 2. Adiabatic Temperature Changes and Expansion and Cooling  Adiabatic temperature changes are temperature changes that happen even though heat isn’t added or subtracted.  Wet adiabatic rate is the rate of adiabatic cooling in saturated air and it is always slower then the dry adiabatic rate.  http://apollo.lsc.vsc.edu/classes/met130/notes/chapte r6/adiab_cool.html
  3. 3. Orographic lifting  Orographic lifting of air occurs when elevated terrains, such as mountains, act as barriers to air flow, forcing the air to go otherwise.  http://ag.arizona.edu/watershedsteward/resources/m odule/Climate/az-climate_pg2.htm
  4. 4. Frontal wedging  The boundary between colliding warm and cold air is a front.  The process that occurs at a front which cold, dense air acts as a barrier over warmer, less dense air is frontal wedging.  http://www.harding.edu/lmurray/113_files/HTML/d2_ Earth%20Revised/sld046.htm
  5. 5. Convergence  The lifting of air that results from air in the lower atmosphere flowing together is convergence.  http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/cld/d vlp/cnvrg.rxml
  6. 6. Localized Convective Lifting  When unequal heating of Earth’s surface warms a pocket of air more than the surrounding air, making the air pockets density lower is called localized convective lifting.  http://wps.prenhall.com/esm_lutgens_foundations_4 e/47/12104/3098876.cw/content/index.html
  7. 7. Stability (Density Differences & Stability and Daily Weather)  When air temperature increases with height is when the most stable conditions happen. This is called temperature inversion.  http://www.meted.ucar.edu/afwa/avalanche/print.ht m
  8. 8. Condensation  When condensation occurs in the air above the ground, little pieces of a specific matter , called condensation nuclei, are for surfaces for water-vapor condensation.  http://keep3.sjfc.edu/students/kes00898/e- port/condensation%20page%20for%20unit.html
  9. 9. Types of Clouds  Cirrus clouds are high in the sky, white and thin. These types of clouds occur as patches or as delicate sheets or extended wispy fibers that often have a feathery look. Cirrus also stands for (a curl of hair)  Cumulus clouds are the clouds that consist of rounded individual cloud masses. They usually have a flat base and appear as rising towers or domes. Cumulus also stands for (a pile)  Stratus clouds are the clouds that are described as sheets or layers that cover a good amount of the sky. Stratus also stands for (a layer)  http://eo.ucar.edu/webweather/cloud3.html
  10. 10. High Clouds  3 cloud tpes make up the family of high clouds. Cirrus, cirrostratus, and cirrocumulus.  Cirrocumulus clouds are fluffy, they have flat layers and warn any stormy weather.  All high clouds are thin, white and are often made of ice crystals.  http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astrono my/planets/earth/clouds/
  11. 11. Middle Clouds  Clouds that appear in the middle range (2,000-6,000 meters)  Altocumulus clouds are rounded and differ from cirrostratus clouds.  These clouds are white and grayish, you also might get a light snow or drizzle with these clouds.  http://scienceprep.org/clouds.htm
  12. 12. Low Clouds  3 types of low clouds; stratus, stratocumulus, & nimbostratus.  Stratus clouds have a fog-like layer that covers much of the sky. Stratocumulus forms when stratus clouds develop a scalloped bottom or in broken rounded patches. Nimbostratus get the name from latin (nimbus) means rainy and cloudy these form during stable conditions.  http://anthonyjstewart.wordpress.com/2009/05/28/ch icago-low-clouds-and-mist/
  13. 13. Clouds of Vertical Development  Some clouds don’t fit into the 3 categories  When upward movement happens acceleration happens with clouds with a large vertical range form  http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC102Notes/102Cl ouds.htm
  14. 14. Fog (by cooling and by evaporation)  Fog can form on warm and cool air.  As the night progresses, a thin layer of air in contact with the ground is cooled below its due point, as it cools it will become more dense.  http://ocw.usu.edu/Forest__Range__and_Wildlife_Sci ences/Wildland_Fire_Management_and_Planning/Un it_4__Temperature-Moisture_Relationship_7.html
  15. 15. Cold Cloud Precipitation (Bergeron process)  The Bergeron process is a theory that relates the formation of precipitation to very cold clouds, freezing nuclei, and the different saturation levels of ice and liquid water.  Supercooled is when water in the liquid state is below 0 degrees Celcius.  http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect14/Sect14_1d.html
  16. 16. Warm Cloud Precipitation (collision-coalescence process)  Supersaturated is when air is saturated (100% realative humidity) with respect to water. With ice (greater than 100% humidity)  Collision-coalescence is a theory of raindrop formation in warm clouds in which large cloud droplets collide and join together with smaller droplets to form a raindrop.  http://www.liveweatherblogs.com/weatherblog/5568/ Clouds-Precipitation-as-earth-s-thermostat
  17. 17. Rain and Snow  Rain means drops of water that fall from a cloud and have a diameter of at least 0.5 mm.  At temperatures warmer then -5 degrees Celsius, ice crystals join together making larger clumps.  Snowfalls of larger clumps are heavy and make higher moisture filling.  http://zahiym5tlc.edublogs.org/
  18. 18. Sleet, Glaze and Hail  Sleet is the fall of small particles of clear to translucent ice.  Glaze (freezing rain) is when rain drops become supercooled, fall to the ground, and turn to ice when they hit objects.  Hail is produced in cumulonimous clouds, they start as small ice pellets that got bigger by connecting really cold water droplets as they fall through a cloud.  http://kvgktrailblazers.weebly.com/forms-of- precipitation.html
  19. 19.  THEEEEEEE ENDDDDDD!!!!  http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/synoptic/precip.ht m

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