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  1. 1. Clouds and Precipitation
  2. 2. Adiabatic Temp. Change and Expansion and cooling• Unsaturated air• Wet adiabatic rat is always lower than dry• Temp. changes happen even if heat isn’t added or subtracted.
  3. 3. Orographic Lifting• Occurs when elevated terrains act bas barriers to the air flow.• Air goes up a mountain slope, is compresses and cooling often generates clouds.• Many rainiest places have windward slopes.
  4. 4. Frontal Wedging• Masses of warm air and cold air collide• Denser air acts, less dense air rises• Middle-latitude are used for storm systems
  5. 5. Convergence• Air masses forces air to rise• The lower it is, it starts to lift• Warm days the air is from the ocean to the land
  6. 6. Localized Convective Lifting• Warm days, unequal heating of Earths surface may cause some pockets of air to be warmed• Warming of air is called thermal• Process the products rising thermals is localizes convection lifting.
  7. 7. Stability• Air is forced to rise• Temperature would drop because of expansion• Volume of air was cooler than the surrounding environment.
  8. 8. Condensation• Happens when water vapor in the air changes to a liquid• For condensation to occur, the air must be saturated• Saturated occurs at dew point or when water vapor is added in the air
  9. 9. Types of clouds• Cirrus- clouds are high, white, occur ad patches• Cumulus- consist if rounded individual cloud mass, have flat bases• Stratus- are like sheets, or a layer that covers most the of sky
  10. 10. High Clouds• All high clouds are thin & white.• Temperature is low with small quantities of water vapor presents a high altitude• Clouds are not considered precipitation markers
  11. 11. Middle clouds• Range to 2000 to 6000 meters• Have prefix of alto• White to grayish color of sheet
  12. 12. Low Clouds• Stratus, Stratocumulus, and Nimbostratus• cloud growth is a type in common when air id forced upwards• Stable air can result in a cloud layer that is largely horicaontal
  13. 13. Clouds Of Vertical Development• Clouds don’t fit into any of the three height categories.• Have bases in low height range but extended upward• Once upward movement is triggered, acceleration is powerful, clouds with great vertical rang form.
  14. 14. Fog• No difference between fog and a cloud• Defined as a cloud• When fog is dense, visibility may be few dozen meters for less
  15. 15. Cold Clouds Precipitation• Relies on two physical processes: super cooling and supersaturating• Cloud droplets to not freeze at 0c• Rainfall can deal with clouds located below the freeing point
  16. 16. Warm Clouds Precipitation• Mechanism forms raindrops, in the collision- coalscence process• Salt can remove water vapor form the air• Large droplets move through clouds, collide and coalesce
  17. 17. Rain and Snow• Rain mean drops of water falling from clouds• Snow melt and continue their descent as rain before they reach the ground• Light, fluffy snow made up of individual six- sides ice crystals
  18. 18. Sleet, Glaze and hail• Sleet is the fall of small particles of clear to translucent ice• Glaze is known for freezing rain, raindrops become super-cooled• Hail is produced in cumulonimbus clouds, hailstones begin as small ice pellets that grow by collection super-cooled water droplets