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  1. 1. Miss Joseph Period 1By: Katelyn Spieker
  2. 2. When air can’t expand, it cools. When it gets compressed, it warms. Temperature changes that occur when heat isn’t added or subtracted are called adiabic temperature changes. Although the air will continue to cool after condensation starts, the latenet heat that gets released works against the adiabatic cooling process.http://iopscience.iop.org/1367-2630/10/6/065001/fulltext/
  3. 3.  When elevated terrains, like http://ocw.usu.edu/Forest__Range__a nd_Wildlife_Sciences/Wildland_Fire_M mountains, take position as anagement_and_Planning/Unit_7__At barrier to air mospheric_Stability_and_Instability_3. flow, orographic lifting of air html occurs. As air makes its way up a mountain slope, adiabatic cooling often generates precipitation and clouds. Many of the places most rainy on Earth are located on these windward mountain slopes.
  4. 4. http://www.geo.hunter.cuny.edu /~tbw/wc.notes/4.moisture.atm. stability/frontal_wedging.htmIn central North America, heaps of cold air and warm air collide. This produces a front.The cooler, denser air acts as a barrier over the warmer less dense air as it rises.Weather-producing fronts are related to specific storm systems called middle-latitude cyclones.
  5. 5.  When air in the lower atmosphere flows together, the result is lifting (convergence)  If air flows in from more than one direction, it must go somewhere.http://en.wikipedia.org/  Because it cannot go down, itwiki/File:Oceanic- goes up, leading to adiabaticoceanic_convergence_Fig21oceanocean.gif cooling and a possibility of clouds forming.
  6. 6.  On warm summer days, uneven heating of the Earth’s surface can cause pockets of air to be warmed more than the air that is surrounding it. The method that produces increasing thermals is localized convection lifting. When warm air parcels http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect14/Sect1 of air ascend above the 4_1c.html condensation level, clouds form.
  7. 7. http://deved.meted.ucar.edu/marine/mbl/print.htm If a quantity of air was required to rise, its temperature would drop because of expansion. If this volume of air was cooler than the surrounding environment, it would be denser, and if permitted to do so, it would drop to its original location.
  8. 8. Air must be saturated for condensation to occur. Saturation occurs most commonly when the air is cooled to its dewhttp://keep3.sjfc.edu/students/kes00898/ point. It occurs lesse-port/condensation%20page%20for%20uni often when water vaport.html is added to the air.
  9. 9. Clouds are classified based on their height and form.Cirrus= a curl of hair (clouds are high, white and thin)Cumulus= a pile (clouds http://eo.ucar.edu/webweat consist of rounded her/cloud3.html individual could masses)
  10. 10. http://mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov/g lossary.php?&letter=H There are 3 types of high clouds- Cirrus, Cirrostratus and Cirrocumulus. All high clouds are thin and white. They often are made of ice crystals. This is because of the low temperatures and small amounts of water vapor that are at high altitudes.
  11. 11. Clouds about 2,000 to 6,000 meters high have the prefix alto as part of their name. Altocumulus clouds are made up of rounded masses that vary from cirrocumulus clouds in that altocumulus clouds are largerhttps://www.meted.ucar.edu/sign_ and denser.in.php?go_back_to=http%253A%252F%252Fwww.meted.ucar.edu%25 Altostratus clouds create a2Ffire%252Fs290%252Funit6%252F uniform white to grayish sheetprint_2.htm## that covers the sky with the sun or moon, looking like a bright spot.
  12. 12. http://www.free-online-private-pilot- ground-school.com/Aviation-Weather- Principles.html There are 3 members in this family of clouds; Stratus, Stratocumulus and Nimbostratus. When stratus clouds develop a scalloped bottom, it appears as long parallel rolls or broken rounded patches. Those clouds become Stratocumulus clouds. Nimbostratus clouds get their name from the Latin word nimbus, which means “rainy cloud” and stratus which means “to cover with a layer”
  13. 13. http://www.astrobio.net/press release/3936/the-secrets-of- the-rainThere are a few clouds that don’t fit into any one of the 3 height categories.These clouds are in the low height range but often extend upward into the middle or high altitudes.Once upward movement is triggered, acceleration is powerful and clouds that have a high vertical range form.
  14. 14.  As the air cools, it becomes denser and drains into low areas such as river valleys where thick fog accumulations can take place. When cool air moves over warm water, enough moisture may evaporate from the water surface to create saturation. http://www.williamsclass.com/Ei ghthScienceWork/Atmosphere/A As water vapor that is rising tmosphereFog.htm meets the cold air, it immediately condenses and rises with the air that is being warmed from below.
  15. 15.  The Bergeron process relies on 2 physical processes: super saturation and super cooling.  Water in the liquid state below 0 degrees Celsius is said to be “super cooled”.  When air is saturated (100% relative humidity) with the exception to water, it is “superhttp://www.kidsgeo.com/geography- saturated” (with thefor-kids/0112-bergeron-process.php respect to ice: greater than 100% humidity)
  16. 16.  In warms clouds, the mechanism that forms raindrops is the collision- coalescence process. As these large droplets move through the cloud, they collide and join together with smaller, slower droplets. http://www.atmo.arizona.ed u/students/courselinks/sprin g07/nats101s2/lecture_note s/mar30.html
  17. 17. http://www.shutterstock.com/pic- 65745589/stock-photo-heavy-cloud- with-rain-and-snow-hi-res-d- rendered-icon-with-clipping- paths.html In meteorology, the term rain means drops of water that fall from a cloud and have a diameter of at least 0.5mm. When the surface temperature is above 4 degrees Celsius, snowflakes usually melt and continue their decent as rain before they reach the ground. When temperatures are very low (when the moisture content of air is small) light, fluffy snow made up of individual six-sided ice crystals form.
  18. 18. Sleet is the fall of small particles of clear to translucent ice. Hair is produced in cumulonimbus clouds. If the ice pellets come across a strong updraft,http://kvgktrailblazers.weebly.com/forms-of-precipitation.html they may be carried upward and begin the downward journey again.