Worksite dining as a collective good or individualization of health  - a Danish perspective Better food at work Tallinn ´0...
Overview <ul><li>Overall status for work, health and food in Denmark – mainly from an ØFN-financed project </li></ul><ul><...
Overall status for work, health and food in Denmark (1) <ul><li>Social inequality in health – also in Denmark </li></ul><u...
Overall status for work, health and food in Denmark (2) <ul><li>Negative and long-term stress – where the person lacks con...
Food at worksites <ul><li>The meal is seen as functional – is supposed to ensure energy for the work </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
The worksite cafeteria <ul><li>Most cafeterias sell food from a desk  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly self service at b...
Health promotion at worksites (1) <ul><li>Almost all worksites have some kind of health promotion </li></ul><ul><li>1997: ...
Health promotion at worksites (2) <ul><li>60 % of the companies have some kind of food or fruit supply </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Bread and salad more than low fat dishes and hot vegetables
Food based worksite interventions in Denmark <ul><li>A few bigger intervention projects:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6-a-day. F...
6-a-day seen as change process <ul><li>Good potential for involving worksite cafeterias in increasing the daily consumptio...
5 year follow up in 6-a-day canteens: sustainability in a changing environment
Governmental regulatory measures (1) <ul><li>Changes in calculation of VAT on cafeteria food: </li></ul><ul><li>VAT should...
Governmental regulatory measures (2) <ul><li>Public-private partnership for dissemination of national guidelines for healt...
Conclusion <ul><li>Some kind of health promotion at most worksites </li></ul><ul><li>The food schemes are inequally distri...
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Worksite dining as a collective good or individualization of health - a Danish perspective

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An analysis of food at work in Denmark and ideas for future research: Future health promotion activities should include focus on work environment and combine an individualistic approach to health with a collective and interest-based approach.

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  • Relativ lidt forskning om betydning for kostrelaterede sundhedsaspekter……Stress kan provokere et hjertetilfælde i form af en blodprop i hjertet, hvis man i forvejen har risikofaktorer som rygning, for fed mad, højt kolesterolniveau i blodet, højt blodtryk mv. Hvis blodkarrene af denne årsag i forvejen er åreforkalkede, vil en stressbelastet periode øge risikoen for, at blodproppen indtræder. Blodpropper uden andre risikofaktorer end stress er yderst sjældne.
  • Interviewundersøgelse
  • Forskellen i indtag mellem serveringssystemerne kunne bl.a. skyldes, at medarbejderne ved buffet i højere grad bliver tilskyndet til at kombinere forskellige valgmuligheder og flere derfor spiser salat, snackgrønt og frugt i forbindelse med frokostmåltidet (Lassen et al, 2006).
  • Med 2-3 års mellemrum interviewundersøgelser på 1000-2000 arbpladser
  • Slight increase in food schemes: 29% in 2002 =&gt; 33% 2007
  • Militærbase: stram økonomi, omorg/udlicitering. Elektronikv: flyttet, stort skift i antal medarbejdere; bank: udlicitering: fastholdelse svær. Affald: store ændr, stor interesse; vanskelig overdragelse ved udlicitering
  • Worksite dining as a collective good or individualization of health - a Danish perspective

    1. 1. Worksite dining as a collective good or individualization of health - a Danish perspective Better food at work Tallinn ´09 Michael Søgaard Jørgensen, Technical University of Denmark Bent Egberg Mikkelsen, Aalborg University Anne Vibeke Thorsen, Technical University of Denmark
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Overall status for work, health and food in Denmark – mainly from an ØFN-financed project </li></ul><ul><li>Food at worksites </li></ul><ul><li>The worksite cafeteria </li></ul><ul><li>Health promotion at worksites </li></ul><ul><li>Interventions on food at worksites </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory measures for healthier food at worksites </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion and perspectives </li></ul>
    3. 3. Overall status for work, health and food in Denmark (1) <ul><li>Social inequality in health – also in Denmark </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National diet survey: Citizens with higher education eat more healthy food and are more interested in healthy food </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diet interacts with other aspects of living conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthier diet => more likely that the person also do sport, does not smoke and does not drink alcohol </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Overall status for work, health and food in Denmark (2) <ul><li>Negative and long-term stress – where the person lacks control on own work – is harmful to the health </li></ul><ul><li>Nurses: High job demand => increase in body weight – especially when obesity is genetically inherited </li></ul><ul><li>Men: High job demand => changes in body weight: High BMI increases. Low BMI decreases </li></ul>
    5. 5. Food at worksites <ul><li>The meal is seen as functional – is supposed to ensure energy for the work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Big meal when physical work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not too big meal when not physical work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The lunch break: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Danish tradition: bringing lunch package from home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eating at the same time, eating in shifts, eating independently </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The ability to handle hunger and diet depends on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The organisation of the meals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The food supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The possibility to be part of a ’food community’ </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. The worksite cafeteria <ul><li>Most cafeterias sell food from a desk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly self service at buffet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Price mechanism and way of serving influence the consumption of fruit and vegetables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffet where fruit and vegetables are included in the buffet price => highest consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire among worksite cafeterias: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The national nutrition guidelines are not met </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially open sandwiches are hard to find in healthy ’versions’ </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Health promotion at worksites (1) <ul><li>Almost all worksites have some kind of health promotion </li></ul><ul><li>1997: 90%. 2007: 99,6% </li></ul><ul><li>Could be one or more of the following initiatives : </li></ul><ul><li>Food scheme, including cafeteria </li></ul><ul><li>Campaings on healthy food, weight watcher groups, supply of healthy recipes etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Fitness or sport </li></ul><ul><li>Rules limiting smoking; support for quiting smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Rules limiting alcohol consumption; support for handling alcohol problems </li></ul><ul><li>Schemes with focus on psycho-social or stress aspects of working conditions </li></ul>
    8. 8. Health promotion at worksites (2) <ul><li>60 % of the companies have some kind of food or fruit supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>33 % with food scheme including cafeteria, 48% fruit scheme </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bigger companies, sites part of bigger companies and public owned companies : more often food and fruit schemes than smaller, private and public worksites </li></ul><ul><li>Especially companies within the financial sector and within public administration have food schemes (58%) and fruit schemes (73%) </li></ul><ul><li>The construction sector: 70% of the companies do not have food schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Especially schemes within the Copenhagen region : Food (55%) and fruit (61%) - </li></ul><ul><li>Less within other regions: Food: 16-31%. Fruit: 36-48% </li></ul>
    9. 9. Bread and salad more than low fat dishes and hot vegetables
    10. 10. Food based worksite interventions in Denmark <ul><li>A few bigger intervention projects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6-a-day. Food at work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissemination of experiences not known </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intervention type: change of food supply combined with information and networking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cafeteria participation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most recently: Canteen-take-away </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible to buy food for eating at home </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. 6-a-day seen as change process <ul><li>Good potential for involving worksite cafeterias in increasing the daily consumption of fruit and vegetsbles </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of worksites involved in intervention: Military base, electronic branch, bank, city hall, waste management </li></ul><ul><li>Average employee consumption mapped </li></ul><ul><li>Big differences in baseline, improvement and sustainability of improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Important for sustainability: Changes in the conditions </li></ul><ul><li>The workplace (budget restrictions, company restructuring, high staff turnover etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>The cafeteria (outsourcing, management support) </li></ul>
    12. 12. 5 year follow up in 6-a-day canteens: sustainability in a changing environment
    13. 13. Governmental regulatory measures (1) <ul><li>Changes in calculation of VAT on cafeteria food: </li></ul><ul><li>VAT should at least include costs for purchase of food (ingredients) and salary for food production in the kitchen </li></ul><ul><li>Aiming at avoiding indirect public subsidies: if employees pay less than the food (ingredients) cost => VAT subtraction higher than VAT payment </li></ul><ul><li>Probably more important: the prices on food in Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>Big supply of cheap meat – because of the big meat industry and its export of certain parts </li></ul><ul><li>Organic food schemes: often reduced consumption of animal products because they are more expensive </li></ul>
    14. 14. Governmental regulatory measures (2) <ul><li>Public-private partnership for dissemination of national guidelines for healthy cafeteria food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthy food supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting healthy choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic food important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diet guidelines – close to the national diet advices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mandatory for national public cafeteria </li></ul>
    15. 15. Conclusion <ul><li>Some kind of health promotion at most worksites </li></ul><ul><li>The food schemes are inequally distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Good experiences with participatory food interventions at worksites </li></ul><ul><li>Dissemination of the experiences not known </li></ul><ul><li>Not much Danish research about how work and working conditions shape the diet </li></ul><ul><li>Future health promotion activities should include focus on work environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combine individualistic approach to health with a collective and interest-based approach </li></ul></ul>
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