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Sphere Housing Standards in Dadaab Refugee Camp
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Viability of Sphere Housing Standards within Dadaab Refugee Camps of North Eastern Kenya

Viability of Sphere Housing Standards within Dadaab Refugee Camps of North Eastern Kenya

By Mitchell Sipus, International Development and Humanitarian Aid Consultant

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Sphere Housing Standards in Dadaab Refugee Camp Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Housing and Displacement An Evaluation Of Sphere Minimum Standards For Shelter Planning Within a Protracted Refugee Settlement Mitchell Sipus, August 2008
  • 2. Presentation • Problem • Literature • Site • Methodology • Findings • Analysis • Conclusion
  • 3. Thesis Problem As Sphere Humanitarian Standards have become the primary model for emergency disaster relief, do the Sphere Standards for Housing satisfy the needs of a long term refugee crisis?
  • 4. Sphere Humanitarian Charter: Minimum Standards in Disaster Relief Strategic Planning - hosting, location, risk assessment Physical Planning - safe and secure access, sanitation, privacy Covered Living Space - roof covering, cultural practice, space provision Design - dignity, participation, health, safety, and well-being Construction - materials, labor, prevention Environmental Impact - materials, resource management, handover SPHERE, Human Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response, 2004
  • 5. Camp Planning Literature Refugee Status Determination (RSD) is a legal process based on the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, the additional 67 protocol, and the Charter of the African Union. While the UN Convention demands specific issues of personal persecution, the OAU Charter permits the recognition of refugee status due to civil disturbance, such as war. In such an instance, asylum seekers may acquire refuge within African States, however further assistance and the acquisition of personal rights will be dependent upon qualification of RSD status under the UN system.
  • 6. Camp Planning Literature A comprehensive housing solution for displaced peoples will include the concerns of: Host Government United Nations Security Environment Economy
  • 7. Dadaab Refugee Camps
  • 8. Somalia Kenya
  • 9. S O K M Dadaab E A N L Y I A A
  • 10. Dagahaley Ifo Hagadera
  • 11. Dadaab Shelter Problems • Established: 1991 • Population: 187,000 • Security • Environment • Economy • Housing
  • 12. Thesis Problem As Sphere Humanitarian Standards have become the primary model for emergency disaster relief, do the Sphere Standards for Housing satisfy the needs of a long term refugee crisis?
  • 13. Methodology Methods of Inquiry Field Data Collection • Photo documentation • Non-participatory Observation • Interviews with Agency Officials • Participation in Agency Operations*
  • 14. Methodology Field Data Collection and Analysis Data Analysis NRC Housing CARE Housing Indigenous Housing Security Security Security SPHERE Guidelines Environment Environment Environment Economy Economy Economy • Security - personal security, structural durability, comfort of inhabitant • Environment - materials used, availability, and regeneration • Economy - relationship to local construction economy, hbi, cost and labor The method was to compare the NRC Sphere housing project to the other existing housing solutions to embrace issues of security, environment, and economy.
  • 15. Findings
  • 16. Sphere Housing with NRC • NRC Project Overview – Intention &Process
  • 17. Sphere Housing
  • 18. Sphere Housing
  • 19. Sphere Housing • NRC Perceived Problems – Reputation – Consistency of wood timbers – PR
  • 20. Sphere Housing • Identified Problems • Security – familiarity, brick stability, children, water • Environment – Reason for actions, vegetation, water • Economy – Reinforcement of power systems, distant market, limited access, formal/informal divide, non participatory in housing supply economy • Additional – Limited Tool supply
  • 21. CARE Housing Protected Block Agency Services
  • 22. CARE Housing
  • 23. CARE Housing
  • 24. CARE Housing
  • 25. CARE Housing
  • 26. CARE Housing • CARE Housing Problems • Environment – Location, design, vegetation, soil • Security – Structure, location, health and safety • Economy – zero
  • 27. Refugee Housing Refugee Housing Solutions
  • 28. Refugee Housing Somali Turlke
  • 29. Refugee Housing Security - lifespan, structure, fence, comfort, knowledge, ventilation, material collection Environment - high consumption but renewable Economy - collect, buy, trade, build, multi-use
  • 30. Refugee Housing Stick Built
  • 31. Refugee Housing Security - moderate, material,ventilation, out building, animals, fence, Environment - consumption/ renew, roofing Economy - skills, special material, multi-use, low to high skill
  • 32. Refugee Housing Wattle & Daab
  • 33. Refugee Housing Security - strong structure, local Knowledge, pests, roofing Environment - consumption/renew, Economy - multi-use, large, rental, Buy, sell, trade in materials, moderate skill
  • 34. Refugee Housing Mud Brick
  • 35. Refugee Housing Security - high security, except floods, structure, safety, knowledge community Separate cooking area Environment - limited impact on soil, High water consumption, High maintenance Economy - specialized skills, Brick manufacturing Roof attachment Metal door fabrication Multi-Use
  • 36. Refugee Housing
  • 37. Analysis
  • 38. Security 1 – low NRC CARE Turkle Stick Wattle & Mud Brick 5 - high Daab Security Totals 48 33 36 40 45 47 Climate & 5 5 5 5 5 5 Context Duration 5 1 2 3 4 5 Roof Coverings 5 5 1 3 3 5 Cultural 2 1 5 3 3 2 Practices Safety & 4 1 2 3 4 4 Privacy Household 4 1 5 5 5 4 Activities Space Division 3 1 1 2 3 3 Multi-Use 4 2 1 3 4 3 Hazardous materials 3 3 3 3 3 3 Ventilation 5 5 5 5 5 5 Thermal capacity 5 3 2 1 2 5 Vector risks 3 5 4 4 4 3
  • 39. Environment 1 negative NRC CARE Turkle Stick Wattle & Mud Brick 5 positive Daab Environment 29 25 18 19 21 25 Green Materials 5 5 5 5 5 5 Reduce long term 3 3 3 3 3 3 impact Sourcing of 5 3 3 3 4 5 materials Erosion 3 3 1 1 1 1 Handover 3 3 3 3 3 3 Rate of 5 4 2 3 4 4 Consumption Regeneration of 5 4 1 1 1 4 materials
  • 40. Economy 1 – low NRC CARE Turkle Stick Wattle & Mud 5 - high Daab Brick Economy 19 6 24 25 26 27 Participatory 2 1 5 5 5 5 Materials 4 1 5 5 5 5 Support 2 1 5 5 5 5 informal economy Support 5 1 1 1 1 3 formal economy Assist home 4 1 5 5 5 5 consolidation process Support HBI 2 1 3 4 5 4
  • 41. Totals 1 – low NRC CARE Turkle Stick Wattle & Mud Total 5 - high Brick Security 48 33 36 40 45 47 249 Environment 25 29 18 19 21 25 137 Economy 19 6 24 25 26 27 127 Totals 92 68 78 84 92 99 • Sphere / NRC Housing is a tremendous improvement over the CARE shelter… • Why is the mud brick housing better than the SPHERE /NRC? – Different Economic Roles • Mud Brick Building – Owners work within existing economic system • Sphere Housing – Agency works outside of the system
  • 42. Conclusion
  • 43. Does Sphere Housing meet the needs of Dadaab? • Plan for multiple housing options within local economy – Develop flexible housing plan to allow filtering and economic growth as not all refugees have the same income • Other ways it can improve: – Maintenance programs – Incorporate multiple use plan – Work more closely with local economy (doors, nails, etc) – Develop home maintenance programming – Work with organic concentrations of market activity
  • 44. Can Sphere Standards function within a Protracted Refugee Settlement? – Planners must go beyond the guidelines • Demand for formulation of indicators • Demand for true tailoring of standards to fit the situation • Demand for a deep recognition of permanent and semi-permanent socio-economic and cultural systems, how those systems spatially operate and change over time.
  • 45. Thank You