Justice, Equity, And Sustainability
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An analysis of how better planning within the Dadaab refuge camps could impact the social landscape.

An analysis of how better planning within the Dadaab refuge camps could impact the social landscape.

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Justice, Equity, And Sustainability Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Justice, Equity, and Sustainability
    • Environmental Degradation and Human Inequity within Dadaab Refugee Camps
    • Mitchell Sipus 2008
  • 2. Problem
    • Although a great deal of literature exists for the planning of refugee camps, such camps continue to pose a threat to the natural environment and are concentrations of human inequity.
  • 3. Problem
    • If such camps will continue to exist, how can they be better planned to offset the negative environmental impact and support the empowerment of the refugee community?
  • 4. Camp Planning Literature
    • Transitional Settlement / Displaced Persons , Oxfam and University of Cambridge 2005
    • UNHCR Handbook on Emergency Settlements , 2004
    • SPHERE – Human Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response 2004
    • Temporary Human Settlement Planning for Displaced Populations in Emergencies , Overseas Development Institute 1998
    • Studies on Emergency and Disaster Relief: Shelter Provision and Settlement Policies for Refugees , Nordika Afrikaininstitutet 1995
  • 5. Case Study: Dadaab
  • 6. Dadaab Kenya Somalia
  • 7. K E N Y A S O M A L I A Dadaab
  • 8.  
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. Dominant Structures
    • Historical
    • Political
    • Social
    • Physical
    • Theoretical
    Camp Planning
  • 17. Dominant Structures
    • Historical
      • European Refugees
      • War Camps
    • Political
      • Cold War Developments in Refugee Policy
      • Multi-Lateral Agency Goals
      • Host Country Goals
      • Source of Conflict or purpose for migration
  • 18. Dominant Structures
    • Social
      • Relations between refugees and host population
      • Relations between refugee groups
      • Interaction of native practices and new context
  • 19. Dominant Structures
    • Physical
      • Characteristics and demands of settlement location
      • Characteristics of available infrastructure
  • 20. Dominant Structures
    • Theoretical
      • Consideration of Camp as Heterotopia
        • Inside / Outside implications of Heterotopia
          • Panopticon
          • barren landscape
  • 21. Observed consequences of present camp plan
    • Environmental Deterioration
      • Aid Assistance vs. Aid Dependence
    • Poor distribution of goods and services
      • Breaking down of traditions, social institutions, needless increase of poverty
    • Segregation
      • Security vs. Threat?
  • 22. Observed consequences of present camp plan
    • Reinforcements of existing power structures
    • Lack of focus on development
    • Presents complications to data collection
  • 23. Environmental Impact
  • 24.  
  • 25.  
  • 26.  
  • 27.  
  • 28.  
  • 29. Social Consequences of Environmental Impact
    • Violence
    • Sexual Abuse
    • Difficult to raise animals
    • Incurs greater expense on refugees
    • Deteriorates opportunities for agriculture
    • Forces stronger security protocol by UNHCR, creating greater friction between agencies and refugees
  • 30. …
    • Poor physical planning strains the environment and a strained environment demands that additional demands be met by agencies
      • Distribution of these demands is critical
  • 31. Landscape and Planning
    • Planning Processes to offset Environmental Impact
      • Ration Distribution Center
      • Firewood Distribution Center
      • Local UNHCR and Medical Facilities for Assistance
      • Site Planning and Green Belt for new settlements
      • Delivery of Soil for house construction at IFO2
  • 32. Access to Goods and Services
  • 33. Access to Goods and Services
    • Firewood
  • 34. Access to Goods and Services
    • Firewood
    • Rations
  • 35. Access to Goods and Services
    • Firewood
    • Rations
    • UN services
  • 36. Access to Goods and Services
    • Firewood
    • Rations
    • UN services
    • Medical
  • 37. Access to Goods and Services
    • Firewood
    • Rations
    • UN services
    • medical
    20 Minutes
  • 38. Access to Goods and Services
    • Firewood
    • Rations
    • UN services
    • Medical
    Protected Block 20 Minutes
  • 39. Physical demands of food ration distribution Population located farthest from distribution center
  • 40. Fire Wood Distribution Center
  • 41. Consequences of Present Plan
    • Benefit - Agencies incur least expense and difficulty for deliverance of aid
    • Loss - Increased tension and miscommunication between agencies and refugees
    • Loss - Sense of hopelessness for refugees furthering dependence on agencies
    • Loss - Those in the most need are the least served through the physical distribution of infrastructure and services causing additional costs by institution over time
  • 42. Consequences of Present Plan
    • Loss - Reinforced power structure also reinforces instability and insecurity within camps
    • Loss - Agencies must continually apply more severe security measures placing further restraints upon an already displaced, and impoverished population, relegating the refugee to the status of a prisoner.
    • Cause….effect…cause…effect…
      • Example: Tree removal – conflict, segregation, agricultural impact, and security measures
  • 43. Given the protocol of existing power structures, the greatest threat to the refugee population is the Police
  • 44.  
  • 45.  
  • 46.
    • Given the existing frameworks which determine refugee camp planning, a more sensitive approach to the local environment and existing social capital will reduce costs and need for security/protection measures for agencies as scarce resources will be more equitably distributed.
    Conclusion
  • 47. Implications and Opportunities
    • Solutions which redistribute the balance of power within existing structures are unlikely to ever be implemented
    • Thus there is a demand for creative solutions for Planning of refugee settlements
    • One strategy is to engage refugee camps as projects of community development, not as political fiascos.
  • 48. Environment
    • Site Planning should conform to landscape, not fight against it
    • As the site locations of services are of crucial significance, it is imperative that planners consider access for all populations
    • Look toward alternative conceptions of infrastructure
  • 49. Environment and Community
    • Need for a Development oriented approach to planning
    • as opposed to Long Term Planning
    • Infrastructure can move beyond basic necessities: high technology, communications, money transfers, modern finance and judicial systems should be considered relevant options to refugee populations
    • Perhaps approach development as the removal of “bottlenecks” to development, vs. installation of expensive infrastructure and services, thus considering social overhead as a starting point and not a later consideration – after all, ‘building capacity’ is generally of greater interest to consultants and agencies than the actual populations.
  • 50. Community
    • Need for new methods for determining existing or overhead social capital
    • Instead of attempting to build capacity, search for viable channels to exercise existing capacity
    • Demand for clearly defined methods for incorporation of refugee participation within decision making processes
  • 51. Thank you for your attention!