History and sport


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presentation on story of cricket
a ppt on a lesson of ncert class 9 history book

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History and sport

  2. 2. 1st Sport to be Codified • Cricket was the earliest modern team sport to be codified i.e. the cricket gave itself rules and regulations so that it could be played in a uniform and standardised way.
  3. 3. LAWS OF CRICKET • • • • The first written Laws of Cricket were drawn up in 1744. They stated: The gentlemen present two umpires who shall absolutely decide all disputes. The stumps must be 22 inches high and the bail across them six inches. The ball must be between 5 and 6 ounces The two sets of stumps 22 yards apart.
  4. 4. World’s First Cricket Club • The world’s first cricket club was formed in Hambledon in the 1760s.
  5. 5. Marylebone Cricket Club(MCC) • The Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) was founded in 1787. • In1788, the MCC published its first revision of the laws and became the guardian of cricket’s regulations.
  6. 6. Revision Of Laws by MCC • Pitching the ball through the air, rather than roll it along the ground. • Replacement of the curved bat with the straight one. • The weight of the ball was limited to between 5.5 to 5.75 ounces. • The width of the bat was limited to four inches. • The first leg-before law was published. • Three days had become the length of a major match. • The creation of the first six-seam cricket ball.
  7. 7. Changes occurred in 19th Century • The rule about wide balls was applied • The exact circumference of the ball was specified • Protective equipment like pads and gloves became available • Boundaries were introduced where previously all shots had to be run and, most importantly, over-arm bowling became legal.
  8. 8. Equipment • The bat, the stumps and the bails are made of wood . • The ball is made with leather, twine and cork.
  9. 9. • Pads and protective gloves are made of rubber. • Helmets are made of metals and synthetic light wear material.
  10. 10. The division of cricket between the rich and the poor • The rich who could afford it to play were called amateurs. They played it for 2 reasons: • they considered sports a kind of leisure. • there was not enough money in the game for the rich to be interested • The poor who played the cricket were known as professionals. • They played it to earn for a living.
  11. 11. Discrimination in cricket • Cricket is a batsman’s game because its rules were made to favor Gentlemen,who did most of the batting. • The social superiority of the amateurs was also the reason the captain of a cricket team was traditionally a batsman not because batsmen were naturally better captains but because they were generally Gentlemen. • Captains of teams, whether club teams or national sides, were always amateurs.
  12. 12. Thomas Arnold • Thomas Arnold, headmaster of the famous Rugby School and founder of the modern public school system, saw team sport like cricket and rugby not just as outdoor play, but as an organised way of teaching English boys the discipline, the importance of hierarchy, the skills, the codes of honour and the leadership qualities that helped them build and run the British empire.
  13. 13. Croquet • Sports for women were not designed as vigorous, competitive exercise. Croquet was a slow-paced, elegant game considered suitable for women, especially of the upper class.
  14. 14. The spread of cricket Cricket was established as a popular sport by • white settlers (as in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Australia, New Zealand, the West Indies and Kenya) • local elites who wanted to copy the habits of their colonial masters, as in India.
  15. 15. Spread of cricket in India and west indies • Playing cricket became a sign of superior social and racial status, and the AfroCaribbean population was discouraged from participating in organized club cricket, which remained dominated by white plantation owners and their servants. • Despite the exclusiveness of the white cricket elite in the West Indies, the game became hugely popular in India and West Indies.
  16. 16. Frank Worrell • The first time a black player led the West Indies Test team was in 1960 when Frank Worrell was named captain.
  17. 17. First Indian Club • The first Indian Club, The Calcutta Cricket Club was established in 1792.
  18. 18. In 18th Century, • Cricket was played by British Military men and civil servants in all white clubs and gymkhanas. • Indians were considered to have no talent for the game and certainly not meant to play for it but they did.
  19. 19. Oriental Cricket Club • The Parsis founded the First Indian Cricket Club, the Oriental Cricket Club in 1848. • They were funded and sponsored by Tatas and Wadias. • They got no help from the whites.
  20. 20. Quadrangular And Pentangular • Ranji Trophy was initially named Quadrangular because it was played by 4 teams: • Europeans • Parsis • Hindus • Muslims • Later it was named Pentangular when a fifth team was added that was Rest(Indian Christians).
  21. 21. India’s First Test Captain • C.K. Nayudu was the first India’s test captain. He was an outstanding batsman of his time. He played his first test match against England in 1932.
  22. 22. First Test Match • The first test was played between England and Australia when Australia was a white settler colony.
  23. 23. Decolonisation • The process through which different parts of European empires became independent was known as decolonisation. • The process influenced the sporting matters a lot.
  24. 24. International Cricket Conference (ICC) • The regulations of International cricket were in the hands of Imperial Cricket Conference(ICC). • It was renamed International Cricket Conference in 1965. • It was dominated by England and Australia. • They had the Veto powers.
  25. 25. Transformation of Early Cricket • In 1970’s cricket was transformed . • In 1970, South Africa was excluded from International cricket • In 1971, the first one day international was played between Australia and England in Melbourne. • In 1977, the game changed forever, not by a player but by a businessman .
  26. 26. Kerry Packer • Kerry Packer was an Australian tycoon. he saw the money making potential of cricket as a televised sport . • He signed world’s leading cricketers for 2 years • He started unofficial tests and one day matches under the name of world series cricket. • He bought the innovations to make cricket more attractive to television audience and changed the nature of the game.
  27. 27. • Packer drove home the lesson that cricket was a marketable game , which could generate huge revenues. • Cricket boards became rich by selling television rights to companies • Continuous television coverage made cricketers celebrities . • They made commercials for a huge range of products and made a lot of money.
  28. 28. Shifting of the ICC headquarters • As India had the largest viewership. The ICC headquarters was shifted to Asia. • Presently it is in Dubai.
  29. 29. Pakistan’s bowling style • Pakistan pioneered 2 great advances in bowling: the doosra and the reverse swing. Doosra Reverse Swing
  30. 30. • Today, the global marketplace has made Indian players the best-paid, most famous cricketers in the game, men for whom the world is a stage.
  31. 31. • Initially, both innovations were greeted with great suspicion by countries like Britain and Australia. • They saw them as an underhanded, illegal bending of the laws of cricket. • In time, it came to be accepted that the laws of cricket could not continue to be framed for British or Australian conditions of play. • They became part of the technique of all bowlers, everywhere in the world.