History of open source software<br /><ul><li>The free software movement was launched in 1983.
In 1998 term “free” replaced by “open source” to avoid confusion.
January 1998 Netscape released the source code to navigator.
The Open Source Initiative (OSI) was formed in February 1998 by Eric S. Raymond and Bruce Perens
April 1998 “open source summit” </li></li></ul><li>The definition<br />Open source software — software which source code is published and made available to the public, enabling anyone to copy, modify and redistribute the source code without paying royalties or fees. Open source code evolves through community cooperation. <br />
List of examples of open source software<br /> Linux - operating system based on Unix <br />Eclipse - software framework for "rich-client applications" <br />Apache - HTTP web server <br />Tomcat web server - web container <br />Moodle - course management system <br />Mozilla Firefox - web browser <br />Mozilla Thunderbird - e-mail client <br />OpenOffice.org — office suite <br />OpenSolaris - Unix Operating System from Sun Microsystems <br />Mediawiki — wiki server software, the software that runs Wikipedia <br />Drupal — content management system <br />
Development philosophy<br />Users should be treated as co-developers.<br />Users encouraged to submit additions, fixes, bug reports.<br />Early releases.<br />The earlier the better. More chance of finding co-developers and fixing problems in the original.<br />Frequent integration.<br />Fix problems as soon as possible, avoiding the overhead of fixing a large number of bugs at the end.<br />Several versions.<br />Should be at least two versions: a buggier with more features and a more stable one with fewer features.<br />
Advantages<br />Greatly reduces production costs.<br />Achieve a greater penetration of the market.<br />The potential for a more flexible technology and quicker innovation.<br />Improved reliability:<br /> Since thousands of developers testing and fixing bugs.<br />Creation of additional works, which build upon previous work but better customized for each particular case. <br />Frees society from administrative costs of policing copyright infringement.<br />
Disadvantages<br />Loss of money incentive to invent new products.<br />May allow hackers to know about the weaknesses or loopholes of the software. <br />Projects can die:<br /> programmers lose interest without sense of ownership <br />programmers involve or become burdened with infighting.<br />Difficulty of marketing:<br />some good ideas remain unknown since there's no interest to market the idea.<br />
Project funding<br />By definition the author cannot charge each user a fee for development.<br />Some alternatives<br />Software can be developed as a consulting project for one or more customers.<br />Provide the software freely, but sell licenses to proprietary add-ons such as data libraries.<br />Develop an open source software to promote your company name and charge for other premium products and services.<br />Charge for implementing OSS and training personnel to use it.<br />
Open Source Culture<br />Media<br />Weblogs - Blogs consist of periodic, reverse chronologically ordered posts<br />OpenDocument - open document file format for saving and exchanging editable office documents<br />Government<br />Open politics - process when government uses Internet technologies such as blogs, email and polling to provide for a rapid feedback<br />Education<br />Open source curricula - instructional resources whose digital source can be freely used, distributed and modified.<br />