Lecture 2


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Lecture 2

  1. 1. Intelligent Agents
  2. 2. Outline• Agents and environments• Rationality• Task Environment• Environment types• Agent types• Examples
  3. 3. AgentsAn agent is anything that can be viewed as perceiving its environment through sensors and acting upon that environment through actuators.Human agent:Sensors: eyes, ears, and other organs for sensors;Actuators: hands, legs, mouth, and other body parts.Robotic agent:Sensors: cameras and infrared range findersActuator: various motors for actuators
  4. 4. Agents and environments• The agent function maps from percept histories to actions: [f: P*  A]• The agent program runs on the physical architecture to produce f.• agent comprised of : architecture + program
  5. 5. Vacuum-cleaner world• Percepts: location and contents, e.g., [A,Dirty]• Actions: Left, Right, Suck, NoOp
  6. 6. A vacuum-cleaner agentPercept Sequence Action[A, Clean] Right[A,Dirty] Suck[B, Clean] Left[B, Dirty] Suck[A, Clean], [A, Clean] Right[A,Clean], [A,Dirty] Suck…. …..[A, Clean], [A, Clean], [A, Clean] Right[A, Clean], [A, Clean], [A, Dirty] Suck….. ….
  7. 7. Rational agents (1/3)• An agent should strive to "do the right thing", based on what it can perceive and the actions it can perform. The right action is the one that will cause the agent to be most successful.• Performance measure: An objective criterion for success of an agents behavior.• E.g., performance measure of a vacuum-cleaner agent could be amount of dirt cleaned up, amount of time taken, amount of electricity consumed, amount of noise generated, etc.
  8. 8. Rational agents (2/3)• Rational Agent: For each possible percept sequence,• a rational agent should select an action that is expected to maximize its performance measure,• given the evidence provided by the percept sequence and whatever built-in knowledge the agent has.
  9. 9. Rational agents (3/3)• Rationality is distinct from omniscience (all-knowing with infinite knowledge).• Agents can perform actions in order to modify future percepts so as to obtain useful information (information gathering, exploration).• An agent is autonomous if its behavior is determined by its own experience (with ability to learn and adapt).
  10. 10. Rational agents (1/5)• What is rational depends on: – Performance measure - The performance measure that defines the criterion of success – Environment - The agents prior knowledge of the environment – Actuators - The actions that the agent can perform – Sensors - The agent’s percept sequence to date• We’ll call all this the Task Environment (PEAS)
  11. 11. Task environment (2/5)Must first specify the setting for intelligent agentdesign.•Consider, e.g., the task of designing an automatedtaxi driver: – Performance measure: Safe, fast, legal, comfortable trip, maximize profits. – Environment: Roads, other traffic, pedestrians, customers. – Actuators: Steering wheel, accelerator, brake, signal, horn. – Sensors: Cameras, sonar, speedometer, GPS, odometer, engine sensors, keyboard.
  12. 12. Task environment (3/5)Agent: Medical diagnosis system• Performance measure: Healthy patient, minimize costs, lawsuits.• Environment: Patient, hospital, staff.• Actuators: Screen display (questions, tests, diagnoses, treatments, referrals).• Sensors: Keyboard (entry of symptoms, findings, patients answers).
  13. 13. Task environment (4/5)Agent: Part-picking robot• Performance measure: Percentage of parts in correct bins• Environment: Conveyor belt with parts, bins• Actuators: Jointed arm and hand• Sensors: Camera, joint angle sensors
  14. 14. Task environment (5/5)Agent: Interactive English tutor• Performance measure: Maximize students score on test• Environment: Set of students• Actuators: Screen display (exercises, suggestions, corrections)• Sensors: Keyboard
  15. 15. Environment types• Fully observable (vs. partially observable): An agents sensors give it access to the complete state of the environment at each point in time.• Deterministic (vs. stochastic): The next state of the environment is completely determined by the current state and the action executed by the agent. (If the environment is deterministic except for the actions of other agents, then the environment is strategic).• Episodic (vs. sequential): The agents experience is divided into atomic "episodes" (each episode consists of the agent perceiving and then performing a single action), and the choice of action in each episode depends only on the episode itself.
  16. 16. Environment types• Static (vs. dynamic): The environment is unchanged while an agent is deliberating. (The environment is semidynamic if the environment itself does not change with the passage of time but the agents performance score does).• Discrete (vs. continuous): A limited number of distinct, clearly defined percepts and actions.• Single agent (vs. multiagent): An agent operating by itself in an environment.
  17. 17. Environment types Chess with Chess without Taxi driving a clock a clockFully observable Yes Yes NoDeterministic Strategic Strategic NoEpisodic No No NoStatic Semi Yes NoDiscrete Yes Yes NoSingle agent No No No• The environment type largely determines the agent design.• The real world is (of course) partially observable, stochastic, sequential, dynamic, continuous, multi-agent.
  18. 18. Agent functions and programs• An agent is completely specified by the agent function mapping percept sequences to actions• One agent function (or a small equivalence class) is rational.• Aim: find a way to implement the rational agent function concisely.
  19. 19. Table-lookup agentFunction Table_Driven_Agent(percept) return an actionStatic: percepts, a sequence initially empty table: a table of actions, indexed by percept sequence, fully specified append percept to the end of percepts action ← LookUp(percepts, table) return actionDrawbacks: – Huge table (10250,000,000,000 entries for an hour driving) – Take a long time to build the table – No autonomy – Even with learning, need a long time to learn the table entries
  20. 20. Agent typesFour basic types:• Simple reflex agents• Model-based reflex agents• Goal-based agents• Utility-based agents
  21. 21. Simple reflex agents SensorsAgent What the world is now like? Environment Condition-action rule What action should I do now? Actuator
  22. 22. Agent program for a vacuum- cleaner agentFunction Reflex_Va_Agent([location, status]) return an actionIf status = Dirty then return SuckElse if location = A then return RightElse if location = B then return Left Good only if environment is fully observable otherwise disaster. For example if location sensor is off then problem? [dirty] [clean]
  23. 23. Model-based reflex agents Keep track of the world it can’t see now. Consider lane change. state SensorHow does the world evolve? What the world is now like? Environment What my action do? Condition-action rule What action should I do now? Actuator Agent
  24. 24. Model-based reflex agents Function Reflex_agent_with_state(percept) return an action Static: state, a description of the current world rules, a set of condition action rules action, the most recent action, initially none state ← Update-State (state, action, percept) rule ← Rule-Match (state, rules) action ← Rule-action (rule) return actionKnowing about the current environment is not always enough to decide what to doFor example in the junction, left, right, go straight
  25. 25. Goal-based agents Choose actions so as to achieve a (given or computed) goal. state SensorHow does the world evolve? What the world is now like? Environment What my action do? What it will be if take action A? Goal What action should I do now? Actuator Agent
  26. 26. Utility-based agentsbut some areGoal alone is not enough. There can be many way to achieve goalquicker, safer, more reliable or cheaper than other. state SensorHow does the world evolve? What the world is now like? Environment What my action do? What it will be if take action A? Utility How happy I will be in that state? What action should I do now? Actuator Agent
  27. 27. Learning agentsPerformance Standard Sensor Criticfeedback Environment changes Learning Performance Element Element Knowledge Learning goals Problem Generator ActuatorAgent
  28. 28. Experience the agentYou can use Webotssimulator for 30 days with full functionality for freeGet it from: http://www.cyberbotics.com/downloadTry some agent and see the controllerWorm Rat in Maze Pioneer quadruped Sumo
  29. 29. Thank You