World War II
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World War II

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World War II World War II Presentation Transcript

  • World War II
  • Germany has to cede Alsace-Lorraine to France Germany has to cede coal mines in Saar to France Germany has to cede West-Prussia and all of Posen to the new country of POLAND Germany has to give up all colonies Germany has to cede all war materials to allies Germany not allowed to have: Tanks Warships Airplanes Poison Gas Germany must limit size of army & navy Germany must pay 20 billion gold marks
  • 440 Articles blamed Germany for WWI
  •  
  • Creating Democracies President Wilson “ 14 Points”
  • Creating Democracies President Wilson “ 14 Points” President Bush Iraq War
  • “ The way Europe worked for centuries was through war, displacement of citizens, and restructuring of national borders.”
  • Wilson’s Goals: Make the world safe for democracy
  • Wilson’s Goals: Make the world safe for democracy Carve up Europe (Based on nationalities)
  • Wilson’s Goals: Make the world safe for democracy Carve up Europe Force DEMOCRATIC governments (Based on nationalities)
  • Nationalism: 1. Division of Europe by nationalities...
  • Nationalism: 1. Division of Europe by nationalities... 2. Loyalty to country & its people* ABOVE ALL ELSE
  • Nationalism: 1. Division of Europe by nationalities... 2. Loyalty to country & its people* ABOVE ALL ELSE *People of the same blood regardless of geography
  • SOVIET UNION
  • 1. “Uncle Joe” became leader of Soviets Stalin’s Goals:
  • 1. “Uncle Joe” became leader of Soviets Stalin’s Goals: 2. Tried to create the perfect Communist state
  • 1. “Uncle Joe” became leader of Soviets Stalin’s Goals: 3. Abolished private farms, established collectives massive industrialization 2. Tried to create the perfect Communist state
  • ITALY
  • Mussolini’s Rise: 1. Unemployment + inflation = strikes
  • Mussolini’s Rise: 1. Unemployment + inflation = strikes 2. Upper-class wanted government help
  • Mussolini’s Rise: 1. Unemployment + inflation = strikes 2. Upper-class wanted government help 3. Benito Mussolini = NATIONALISM
  • Mussolini’s Rise: 1. Unemployment + inflation = strikes 2. Upper-class wanted government help 3. Benito Mussolini = NATIONALISM 4. Practiced TOTALITARIANISM
  • Totalitarianism:
    • Method of control in which a country’s individuals have little or no freedoms separate from the government’s wishes
  • GERMANY
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  • Hitler promised to raise Germany from the shame of the Treaty of Versailles
  • The League of Nations FAILS
  • The League of Nations FAILS It’s fatal flaw? No military for enforcement
  • The League of Nations FAILS It’s fatal flaw? No military for enforcement Failure in Japan
  • The League of Nations FAILS It’s fatal flaw? No military for enforcement Failure in Japan Hitler increased size of army
  • The League of Nations FAILS It’s fatal flaw? No military for enforcement Failure in Japan Hitler increased size of army The League couldn’t stop him
  • The League of Nations FAILS It’s fatal flaw? No military for enforcement Failure in Japan Hitler increased size of army The League couldn’t stop him Italy gave all power to Il Duce
  • The League of Nations FAILS It’s fatal flaw? No military for enforcement Failure in Japan Hitler increased size of army The League couldn’t stop him Italy gave all power to Il Duce The League did nothing
  • Isolationism:
    • Belief that one’s country should stay out of other countries conflicts
    The “America First” Committee
  • “ ...and the Wolf chewed up the children and spit out their bones...But those were Foreign Children and it didn’t really matter.”
  • Hitler’s Rise to Power Germany asks France For moratorium—France Refuses France controls Germany’s richest production area German workers strike/inflation rises 1922
  • Hitler’s Rise to Power Hitler acts out “Beer Hall Putsch” “ Putsch” fails Hitler imprisoned Writes “ Mein Kampf ” Mein Kampf explains principles of Nazism
  • Hitler’s Rise to Power Hitler gains a following as a savior Democratically elected as PM of Weimar Establishes the Third Reich 1933
  • Austria (formerly Austria-Hungary” was not allowed to join Germany... Hitler takes Austria
  • “ German Austria must unite itself with the German Motherland...” —Hitler Mein Kampf
  • Austria (formerly Austria-Hungary” was not allowed to join Germany... Austrian Chancellor accepted Hitler’s terms for control of Austria (by vote) Hitler takes Austria
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  • Austria (formerly Austria-Hungary” was not allowed to join Germany... Austrian Chancellor accepted Hitler’s terms for control of Austria (by vote) Hitler invaded Austria (1938) Hitler takes Austria
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Czechoslovakia Czechs...7,447,000
  • Czechoslovakia Czechs...7,447,000 Germans...3,218,000
  • Czechoslovakia Czechs...7,447,000 Germans...3,218,000 Slovaks...2,309,000
  • Czechoslovakia Czechs...7,447,000 Germans...3,218,000 Slovaks...2,309,000 Magyars...729,000
  • Czechoslovakia Czechs...7,447,000 Germans...3,218,000 Slovaks...2,309,000 Magyars...729,000 Ruthenes...569,000
  • Czechoslovakia Czechs...7,447,000 Germans...3,218,000 Slovaks...2,309,000 Magyars...729,000 Ruthenes...569,000 Poles...100,000
  • Czechoslovakia Czechs...7,447,000 Germans...3,218,000 Slovaks...2,309,000 Magyars...729,000 Ruthenes...569,000 Poles...100,000 Others...266,000
  • Hitler takes Czechoslovakia Sudetenland contained large # of German-speaking , pro-Nazi population
  • Hitler takes Czechoslovakia Sudetenland contained large # of German-speaking , pro-Nazi population Hitler & Chamberlain met 3 times over the Sudetenland in N. Czechoslovakia
  • Hitler takes Czechoslovakia Sudetenland contained large # of German-speaking , pro-Nazi population Hitler & Chamberlain met 3 times over the Sudetenland in N. Czechoslovakia The Munich Agreement (Sudetenland would be Hitler’s last demand)
  • Hitler & Stalin Soviet Union signed non-aggression pact With Germany
  • Hitler & Stalin Soviet Union signed non-aggression pact With Germany Stalin gained eastern half of Poland
  • Hitler’s Attack Style BLITZKRIEG
  • Stage 1: Air bombing Stage 2: Tanks & Artillery
  • Stage 3: Flanking Infantry
  • Highly effective fighting style Fighting in Poland was over in 3 weeks
  • Hitler takes France Hitler planned to attack France after Poland
  • Hitler takes France Hitler planned to attack France after Poland French behind “Maginot Line”
  • Hitler takes France Hitler planned to attack France after Poland French behind “Maginot Line” Germans behind “Siegfried Line”
  • Hitler takes France Hitler planned to attack France after Poland French behind “Maginot Line” Germans behind “Siegfried Line” A year spent waiting = “Phony War”
  • Hitler takes France Hitler attacked Belgium & “walked to France”
  • Hitler takes France Hitler attacked Belgium & “walked to France” Handed France his surrender terms
  • Hitler takes France Hitler attacked Belgium & “walked to France” Handed France his surrender terms Germany controlled N. France
  • Hitler takes France Hitler attacked Belgium & “walked to France” Handed France his surrender terms Germany controlled N. France S. France was puppet government (“Vichy”)
  • Britain Poland Romania
  • Greece Turkey
  • Soviet Union Britain Got Entangled
  • The Holocaust
  • Nazi plan for Weimar Republic Disband the Reichstag
  • “ We will become members of the Reichstag in order to disable the Weimar order with its own acquiescence...We come as enemies.” — Joseph Goebbels
  • Nazi plan for Weimar Republic Disband the Reichstag Reichstag burns & Hitler blames the communists
  • Nazi plan for Weimar Republic Disband the Reichstag Reichstag burns & Hitler blames the communists President Von Hindenburg suspended individuals & civil rights
  • Nazi plan for Weimar Republic Hitler elected democratically
  • Nazi plan for Weimar Republic Actions against “inferiors” began a month later Hitler elected democratically
  • Nazi plan for Weimar Republic Actions against “inferiors” began a month later Hitler elected democratically One of the first actions was the “Jewish boycott”
  • Elimination of a race required 3 steps:
    • Marginalization
    2. Government action 3. Execution
  • 1. Marginalization
  • Before Hitler, most Jews were comfortable as German citizens... Converted to Christianity Married non-Jews 100,000+ fought for Germany during WWI Taught in German Universities
  • Nazis required a boycott of all Jewish owned shops and business’
  • “ Germans! Defend yourselves! Don’t buy from Jews.” “ The Jews are our misfortune!” “ JUDE”
  • “ Nazification” of Culture Distinguishing between “pure” German (Nazi) culture & inferior cultures
  • “ Nazification” of Culture Distinguishing between “pure” German (Nazi) culture & inferior cultures Hundreds of Thousands of “ un-German” books were burned
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  • “ Nazification” of Culture Germany relied on PROPAGANDA
  • “ Nazification” of Culture Germany relied on PROPAGANDA Joseph Goebbels—Master of Propaganda
  • “ Nazification” of Culture Germany relied on PROPAGANDA Controlled press, radio, film, art, music, and public events Joseph Goebbels—Master of Propaganda
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  • “ Nazification” of Culture 1937—Degenerate Art Exhibit
  • “ Nazification” of Culture 1937—Degenerate Art Exhibit Degenerate Art —art that doesn’t glorify Aryan race
  • “ Nazification” of Culture 1937—Degenerate Art Exhibit Exhibit was designed to emphasize the arts’ “ugliness” Degenerate Art —art that doesn’t glorify Aryan race
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  • 2. Government Action
  • Jews & the Law 400 laws limiting Jewish citizens between (1933-1939)
  • Jews & the Law 400 laws limiting Jewish citizens between (1933-1939) Civil Service Law
  • Jews & the Law 400 laws limiting Jewish citizens between (1933-1939) Nazis even created a “science” based on Jewish/German differences Civil Service Law
  • “ [the] state must set race in the center of all life. It must take care to keep it pure. [The state] must see to it that only the healthy beget children...” —Hitler Mein Kampf
  • Race Science Forced sterilization (500,000 in 10) 320,000 German outcasts: Alcoholics, homosexuals, depressed, schizophrenics, “work shy” Instituted euthanasia (execution) Mentally insane, handicapped, retarded
  • Nuremburg Race Laws Women under 45 couldn’t work in Jewish households Marriage & sex between Jews & non-Jews forbidden Jews are not German citizens Subjects of the state
  •  
  • “ Jews Unwelcome” signs appeared in theaters, shops, pharmacies, hotels, restaurants, etc.
  • Could only sit on public benches marked for Jews
  • Jewish business’ Aryanized
  • All Jews had to take new middle names
  • Jewish passports marked with “J”
  • The Evian Conference Britain: “No room.” US: “We have a quota system.” Australia: “We don’t want the Jewish problem.” Canada: “We’ll take farmers only.”
  • Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass)
  • The Saint Louis
  • Hitler elected democratically 1933 Boycott of Jewish business’ “ Civil Service” laws (400 between ‘33-’39)
  • “ Degenerate Art” exhibit Forced sterilization of “inferiors” Separation of “pure” German and “inferior” people groups 1937 1934 1935
  • The S.S. Saint Louis The Evian Conference Kristallnacht 1939 1938
  • 3. Execution