Unit 3 causes of the civil war

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Unit 3: The Causes of the Civil War as given by M. Shomaker during the 2013-2014 school year to 8th grade students at CCA.

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Unit 3 causes of the civil war

  1. 1. UNIT 3: CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR 8th Grade US History (CCA 2013-2014) M. SHOMAKER
  2. 2. What led to civil war? 1. Manifest Destiny 2. Trouble in California 3. “Slavery” [there’s much more to this] 4. Failed compromises 5. 1860 election
  3. 3. What was Manifest Destiny?
  4. 4. The time has come for everyone to stop treating Texas as an alien, and to stop thwarting our policy and hampering our power, limiting our greatness and checking the fulfillment of our manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions. -John O. Sullivan “Annexation” [1845]
  5. 5. WHY NOW?
  6. 6. The Mexican War
  7. 7. Roots of the Conflict • Protestant Texas vs. Catholic Mexico • Immigration restrictions • Mexico forbid slavery
  8. 8. James Polk • Two-term Governor of Tennessee, Speaker of the House, & won against Whig Henry Clay in 1844 • Ran on “Manifest Destiny” •US had God-given right to the West •Annex Texas/Occupy Oregon • How did his presidency preface war? •Lower tariffs & independent treasury caused “boom” •Gained Oregon Territory & California*
  9. 9. Mexican-American War • Texas was Mexican territory • Americans were allowed to settle there • Santa Anna imposed strict stipulations • Stephen Austin encouraged revolt • American victory led to annexation debate (imbalance)
  10. 10. TREATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO
  11. 11. Mexican-American War…cont’d. • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war • Annexed Texas into the US • Mexican land cession worth $18 million
  12. 12. Wilmot Proviso • Suggested ban on slavery in new territories from Mexico • Slaveholders viewed it as an attack • Led to the creation of the “Free-Soilers”
  13. 13. Trouble in California • President Taylor (1848) courted “Free-Soilers” & Northern Democrats • Advised California to apply for statehood quick • California’s entry was blocked (imbalance) • Resulted in the “Compromise of 1850” • Created by Clay, Webster, & Stephen Douglas
  14. 14. Compromise of 1850 The Compromise of 1850 demonstrated just how fractured the country had become over the issue of slavery.
  15. 15. 1 California is a free state 2 New Mexico/Utah Slavery-NR 3 Texas boundaries Slavery-NR 4 Slave trade abolished in D.C. 5 $10 million in reparation 6 Fugitive Slave Act
  16. 16. Fugitive Slave Act
  17. 17.  Allowed slave-owners to use Federal power to return runaways
  18. 18.  No right to trial  One white accuser  If accused, even free blacks could be enslaved  Divided the Whigs
  19. 19. North and South: A Comparison
  20. 20. Slavery Small % of plantation owners
  21. 21. States & Pop. 23 states + border states & territories 22 million (4 million) 11 states + limited border state assistance 9 million (1.2 million with 3.5 million slaves)
  22. 22. Economy 100,000 (1.1 million workers) 20,000 (101,000 workers) 20,000 miles of rail 9,000 miles of rail
  23. 23. Dred Scott Decision • Slave Dred Scott sued for freedom • Taney court denied •Blacks were not citizens •Congress could not outlaw slavery • Denied civil rights and opened territories to slavery
  24. 24. STATES RIGHTS
  25. 25. 1833 Congress approved force to crush South Carolina S.C.
  26. 26. Children… Yummy! Henry Clay
  27. 27. Bleeding Kansas
  28. 28. POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY
  29. 29. Bleeding Kansas • 1854: Kansas-Nebraska act gave “Popular Sovereignty” • Radicals took votes away from settlers •“Border Ruffians” from Missouri •“Emigrant Aid Society” from East • Numbers favored slavery & drafted “Lecompton Constitution” • Abolitionists formed separate gov’t. in Lawrence
  30. 30. Bleeding Kansas…cont’d. • 1855: Beginning of the “Wakarusa War” • 1856: Slave-state supporters sacked Lawrence • Preston Brooks attacks Charles Sumner
  31. 31. Bleeding Kansas…cont’d. • 1855: Beginning of the “Wakarusa War” • 1856: Slave-state supporters sacked Lawrence • Preston Brooks attacks Charles Sumner • Out of the fray came John Brown
  32. 32. john brown
  33. 33. chosen by God
  34. 34. hunted by creditors
  35. 35. a murderous hand
  36. 36. a fierce devotion
  37. 37. saint or sinner?
  38. 38. transplanted from the east to Kansas
  39. 39. intellectually & radically opposed to slavery
  40. 40. <won him the support of Yankee abolitionists>
  41. 41. Pottawatomie Massacre
  42. 42. Lincoln • Elected to US Congress (Whig) in 1846 • Early views on slavery: •Opposition to slavery’s expansion •Gradual emancipation •Colonization • Put him at odds with both major parties • Had contradictory views on the issue
  43. 43. Lincoln…cont’d. • “Slavery should not be expanded but left untouched where it exists.” -Lincoln •“Slavery must be cut out like a cancer.” -Lincoln •Passed the Emancipation Proclamation freeing only slaves in the 11 official Confederate States
  44. 44. Antebellum Politics • Much more diverse than today • “The Know-Nothings” •Emerged from splintered Whig party •Most were “Nativists” •Hated a few things: • Irish • Germans • Catholics • Blacks
  45. 45. Election of 1860 • After Harper’s Ferry, Republican party grew as the abolitionist party • Many Democrats sided with slave-holders • Lincoln vs. Stephen Douglas • Lincoln’s moderate views/egalitarian image helped him in a landslide (Douglas won Missouri) • Lincoln won and the South was fed up
  46. 46. Secession! • South Carolina voted to secede four days later • Ten states followed •Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, Virginia •Feb. 1861: C.S.A. founded under Jefferson Davis •Took advantage of Buchanan’s “lame duck” • “Crittenden Amendments” failed
  47. 47. Proposed Crittenden Compromise, 1860
  48. 48. Secession! …cont’d. •Basis of secession: •No Constitutional limitation •“States Rights” •Powerful anti-slavery Republican party/Northern interference •Historical precedent •Worldwide nationalism •Not all southerners wanted secession (WV) and not all northerners wanted war

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