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Observation   Inference Presentation [Compatibility Mode]

Observation Inference Presentation [Compatibility Mode]






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    Observation   Inference Presentation [Compatibility Mode] Observation Inference Presentation [Compatibility Mode] Presentation Transcript

    • Observation & Inference In Understanding History The “What” compared to the “Why”
    • What is Observation? • Observation is the act of looking at a particular object, text, or individual and making an assumption. • We make observations using our 5 senses: – Sight – Smell – Sound – Taste – Touch • Observations can be qualitative or quantitative
    • Qualitative Observation • These are a description of what we see • Qualitative=Quality (or how something appears) Qualitative=Quality • Example: The bowl is red • Example: It feels like a newspaper
    • Quantitative Observation • These are the number of items we observe • Quantitative=Quantity (number) Quantitative=Quantity • Example: The red bowl has three yellow stripes around it. • Example: The paper item has six columns on the front.
    • Inferences? • An inference explains your observation • An inference is based on prior or background knowledge • “Observations are information we gather directly through our five senses…inferences help explain those observations!”
    • Examples of Inference… • Observation: The floor in the doorway of class is wet. • Possible Inferences: – There is a leak from the ceiling – Someone spilled water – The janitor is preparing to scrub the floor • These are all possible explanations as to why the floor is wet. We know that ceilings sometimes leak, people spill water, and water and soap are used to scrub floors
    • A Couple Historical Examples • What can we observe? • It is a gun: – Barrel – Trigger – Hammer • It looks old: – Made of wood – No place for bullets to load – Has some kind of rock on the hammer
    • A Couple Historical Examples…Cont’d. • What can we infer? – Most modern pistols are not made of wood – Most modern pistols have a clear location for loading bullets – Modern pistols DON’T have a rock on the hammer • We can then use inference to tell us that this is definitely an old weapon that uses a rock and metal in its operation
    • A Couple of Historical Examples…Cont’d. • Now, using text, what can we observe? – Looks like music – Has two dates (1763-1816) (1763- – Talks about dying and eternity
    • A Couple of Historical Examples…Cont’d. • What can we infer? – Belongs to an old tradition – Is meant to be sung – Used as part of a religious exercise or ceremony