Physical Science Ch 11
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Physical Science Ch 11 Physical Science Ch 11 Presentation Transcript

  • Table of Contents
    • Section 1 Elements in Living Things
    • Section 2 Compounds of Living Things
    Chapter 11 The Chemistry of Living Things
  • The Bonding of Carbon Atoms
    • Carbon has a central role in the chemistry of living organisms because it can form long chains with other carbon atoms and because it can bond with atoms of other elements to form many different compounds.
    • Each carbon atom has four valence electrons. So, each carbon atom can make a total of four bonds.
    Section 1 Elements in Living Things Chapter 11
  • The Bonding of Carbon Atoms , continued
    • Carbon-based molecules can come in many different shapes, or backbones.
    • Three kinds of carbon backbones are the straight chain, the branched chain, and the ring.
    Section 1 Elements in Living Things Chapter 11
  • The Chemistry of Living Things Chapter 11
  • The Bonding of Carbon Atoms , continued
    • A covalently bonded compound that contains carbon is called an organic compound.
    • Atoms of carbon most often form four separate single bonds with other atoms.
    Section 1 Elements in Living Things Chapter 11
  • The Bonding of Carbon Atoms , continued
    • A single bond is a covalent bond made up of one pair of shared electrons.
    • Carbon atoms can also form two covalent bonds, called a double bond, and three bonds, called a triple bond.
    Section 1 Elements in Living Things Chapter 11
  • Organic Compound The Chemistry of Living Things Chapter 11
  • Other Elements in Living Organisms
    • Living organisms are made of compounds that are composed mostly of the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur.
    • Today, many kinds of organic compounds are manufactured, such as vitamins, hormones, and other supplements.
    Section 1 Elements in Living Things Chapter 11
  • The Chemistry of Living Things Chapter 11
  • What You Will Learn
    • Living organisms depend on large compounds, such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
    • Living organisms depend on many smaller compounds such as water and salt.
    Section 2 Compounds of Living Things Chapter 11
  • Carbohydrates
    • Biochemicals are large organic compounds that living things make and use.
    • Biochemicals that are composed of sugar molecules bonded together are called carbohydrates.
    Section 2 Compounds of Living Things Chapter 11
  • Carbohydrates , continued
    • A complex carbohydrate can be a long-chain polymer. A polymer is a chain of repeating units.
    • Complex carbohydrates may be made up of a chain of thousands of simple sugars.
    • Living things use carbohydrates mostly as a source of energy.
    Section 2 Compounds of Living Things Chapter 11
  • The Chemistry of Living Things Chapter 11
  • Lipids
    • Lipids are biochemicals that do not dissolve in water. Fats, oils, and waxes are lipids.
    • Lipids usually have very long chains of carbon atoms.
    • Lipids store energy and make up cell membranes.
    Section 2 Compounds of Living Things Chapter 11
  • Types of Lipids The Chemistry of Living Things Chapter 11
  • Proteins
    • Proteins are biochemicals that are made of much smaller molecules called amino acids. Most proteins are made of very long chains of amino acids.
    • There are 20 different amino acids that can combine in any order to form proteins in living things.
    Section 2 Compounds of Living Things Chapter 11
  • Proteins , continued
    • Protein is needed to build and repair body structures and to regulate processes in the body.
    • Hemoglobin is an important protein found in red blood cells that helps carry oxygen to all of the cells of the body.
    Section 2 Compounds of Living Things Chapter 11
  • Proteins The Chemistry of Living Things Chapter 11
  • Nucleic Acids
    • The largest molecules made by living organisms are nucleic acids. Nucleic acids are biochemicals made up of nucleotides.
    • Nucleic acids are sometimes called the blueprints of life because they carry all of the information needed for a cell to make all of its proteins.
    Section 2 Compounds of Living Things Chapter 11
  • Nucleic Acids , continued
    • There are two kinds of nucleic acids: DNA and RNA.
    • DNA is the genetic material of a cell.
    • The four kinds of nucleotides found in DNA are Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine.
    Section 2 Compounds of Living Things Chapter 11
  • The Chemistry of Living Things Chapter 11
  • Other Important Compounds
    • No living thing on Earth can survive without water. Water regulates temperature, helps transport substances, and provides lubrication.
    • Salt plays an important role in nerve cells by helping conduct signals throughout the body.
    Section 2 Compounds of Living Things Chapter 11
  • Concept Map Chapter 11 The Chemistry of Living Things Use the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide. organic compounds carbohydrates lipids proteins nucleic acids
  • The Chemistry of Living Things Chapter 11 Concept Map
  • The Chemistry of Living Things Chapter 11 Concept Map
  • End of Chapter 11 Show The Chemistry of Living Things Chapter 11
    • 1. In the sentence “We will be studying the principles of chemistry,” what does the word principles mean?
      • A. basic laws
      • B. ideas
      • C. secondary sources
      • D. assumptions
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 1. In the sentence “We will be studying the principles of chemistry,” what does the word principles mean?
      • A. basic laws
      • B. ideas
      • C. secondary sources
      • D. assumptions
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 2. Which of the following sets of words best completes the sentence “Living organisms are made of molecules that _____ carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur”?
      • A. consist from
      • B. consisted to
      • C. consist of
      • D. consistent with
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 2. Which of the following sets of words best completes the sentence “Living organisms are made of molecules that _____ carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur”?
      • A. consist from
      • B. consisted to
      • C. consist of
      • D. consistent with
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 3. In the sentence “Principles of chemistry underlie the functioning of living organisms,” what does the word underlie mean?
      • A. be the basis of
      • B. deny the reasons for
      • C. explain causes of
      • D. have little to do with
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 3. In the sentence “Principles of chemistry underlie the functioning of living organisms,” what does the word underlie mean?
      • A. be the basis of
      • B. deny the reasons for
      • C. explain causes of
      • D. have little to do with
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 4. Which of the following words means “normal actions”?
      • A. negotiating
      • B. functioning
      • C. breaking
      • D. challenging
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 4. Which of the following words means “normal actions”?
      • A. negotiating
      • B. functioning
      • C. breaking
      • D. challenging
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • Use the diagram below to answer the next question.
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 5. What kind of carbon backbone does the figure above represent?
      • A. a pair chain
      • B. a ring chain
      • C. a branched chain
      • D. a straight chain
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 5. What kind of carbon backbone does the figure above represent?
      • A. a pair chain
      • B. a ring chain
      • C. a branched chain
      • D. a straight chain
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 6. Carbon atoms most often form four separate covalent bonds with other atoms. Carbon atoms can also form two covalent bonds between them. What are these bonds called?
      • A. double bonds
      • B. single bonds
      • C. triple bonds
      • D. pair bonds
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 6. Carbon atoms most often form four separate covalent bonds with other atoms. Carbon atoms can also form two covalent bonds between them. What are these bonds called?
      • A. double bonds
      • B. single bonds
      • C. triple bonds
      • D. pair bonds
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 7. Molecules of simple sugars can join to form long strings. What are these long strings of sugars called?
      • A. triple bonds
      • B. carbon backbones
      • C. nucleic acids
      • D. complex carbohydrates
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 7. Molecules of simple sugars can join to form long strings. What are these long strings of sugars called?
      • A. triple bonds
      • B. carbon backbones
      • C. nucleic acids
      • D. complex carbohydrates
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 8. What element is found in the highest percentage by weight in the human body?
      • A. hydrogen
      • B. oxygen
      • C. carbon
      • D. phosphorus
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 8. What element is found in the highest percentage by weight in the human body?
      • A. hydrogen
      • B. oxygen
      • C. carbon
      • D. phosphorus
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 9. When molecules join to form long chains of repeating units, the chains are called
      • A. phosphorus.
      • B. carbon.
      • C. polymers.
      • D. branches.
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 9. When molecules join to form long chains of repeating units, the chains are called
      • A. phosphorus.
      • B. carbon.
      • C. polymers.
      • D. branches.
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 10. Which of the following is a kind of biochemical that does not dissolve in water and that makes up cell walls, fats, oils, and waxes?
      • A. glycogen
      • B. carbohydrate
      • C. lipid
      • D. cellulose
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 10. Which of the following is a kind of biochemical that does not dissolve in water and that makes up cell walls, fats, oils, and waxes?
      • A. glycogen
      • B. carbohydrate
      • C. lipid
      • D. cellulose
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 11. In what way is the structure of a protein more complex than the structure of a carbohydrate or a lipid?
      • A. Proteins are made up of different combinations of amino acids.
      • B. Proteins are very large molecules.
      • C. Proteins are made up of long-chain polymers.
      • D. Proteins come in two forms: simple proteins and complex proteins.
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 11. In what way is the structure of a protein more complex than the structure of a carbohydrate or a lipid?
      • A. Proteins are made up of different combinations of amino acids.
      • B. Proteins are very large molecules.
      • C. Proteins are made up of long-chain polymers.
      • D. Proteins come in two forms: simple proteins and complex proteins.
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 12. What is the term for the genetic material of a cell?
      • A. hormones
      • B. hemoglobin
      • C. DNA
      • D. protein
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 12. What is the term for the genetic material of a cell?
      • A. hormones
      • B. hemoglobin
      • C. DNA
      • D. protein
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 13. Which of the following is an example of a tertiary consumer?
      • A. an alga
      • B. a wolf
      • C. a duck
      • D. an iguana
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 13. Which of the following is an example of a tertiary consumer?
      • A. an alga
      • B. a wolf
      • C. a duck
      • D. an iguana
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • Use the diagram below to answer the next question.
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 14. According to the diagram above, at what point does the light energy become chemical energy?
      • A. at point A
      • B. at point B
      • C. at point C
      • D. at point D
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 14. According to the diagram above, at what point does the light energy become chemical energy?
      • A. at point A
      • B. at point B
      • C. at point C
      • D. at point D
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 15. The sun is a major source of energy. What is the name for the chemical reaction in plants that is caused by the sun?
      • A. evaporation
      • B. radiation
      • C. photosynthesis
      • D. process
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 15. The sun is a major source of energy. What is the name for the chemical reaction in plants that is caused by the sun?
      • A. evaporation
      • B. radiation
      • C. photosynthesis
      • D. process
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 16. In animals, what cell structures are responsible for releasing energy that can be used by the cells?
      • A. vacuoles
      • B. mitochondria
      • C. chloroplasts
      • D. proteins
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
    • 16. In animals, what cell structures are responsible for releasing energy that can be used by the cells?
      • A. vacuoles
      • B. mitochondria
      • C. chloroplasts
      • D. proteins
    Chapter 11 Standards Assessment
  • Chapter 11