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Phyical Science CH 7
 

Phyical Science CH 7

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    Phyical Science CH 7 Phyical Science CH 7 Presentation Transcript

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      How to Use This Presentation
    • Resources Chapter Presentation Image Bank Math Focus Bellringers Standards Assessment Visual Concepts
    • Table of Contents
      • Section 1 Arranging the Elements
      • Section 2 Grouping the Elements
      Chapter 7 The Periodic Table
    • Bellringer
      • Locate the metals on the periodic table. List the names and symbols of five metals that you recognize. Locate the nonmetals on the periodic table. List the names and symbols of five nonmetals that you recognize.
      • Describe the general positions of the metals and nonmetals on the periodic table. What are the elements that lie between the metals and nonmetals on the periodic table called? Write your responses in your Science Journal.
      Section 1 Arranging the Elements Chapter 7
    • What You Will Learn
      • Elements on the periodic table are arranged in order of increasing number.
      • Elements on the periodic table are classified as metals, nonmetals, or metalloids.
      • Elements in a horizontal row, or period, are listed in order of increasing atomic number.
      • Elements in a vertical column, or group, usually have similar chemical properties.
      • The periodic law states that the properties of elements form a pattern according to increasing atomic number.
      Section 1 Arranging the Elements Chapter 7
    • Discovering a Pattern
      • Mendeleev created the first periodic table of the elements in 1869. Periodic describes something that occurs or repeats at regular intervals.
      • Mendeleev arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic mass. Elements with similar properties fell into a repeating pattern.
      • He used his table to predict that elements with certain properties would be discovered later.
      Section 1 Arranging the Elements Chapter 7
    • Changing the Arrangement
      • Moseley determined the number of protons—the atomic number—in an atom. He then rearranged the periodic table by placing the elements in order of increasing atomic number.
      • Horizontally, elements are in order of increasing atomic number. Vertically, elements with similar chemical properties are grouped in columns.
      Section 1 Arranging the Elements Chapter 7
    • The Periodic Table Chapter 7
    • Periodic Table Overview The Periodic Table Chapter 7
    • The Periodic Table and Classes of Elements
      • Elements are classified according to their properties as metals, nonmetals, and metalloids. The zigzag line on the periodic table helps you locate the metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.
      • Most elements are metals. Metals are located to the left of the zigzag line. Most metals are shiny, malleable, and conduct electric current.
      Section 1 Arranging the Elements Chapter 7
    • The Periodic Table and Classes of Elements , continued
      • Nonmetals are located to the right of the zigzag line. Many properties of nonmetals are the opposite of the properties of metals.
      • Metalloids, also called semimetals , border the zigzag line. Metalloids have some properties of metals and some of nonmetals.
      Section 1 Arranging the Elements Chapter 7
    • Comparing Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids The Periodic Table Chapter 7
    • Decoding the Periodic Table
      • Each square on the periodic table includes an element’s name, chemical symbol, atomic number, and atomic mass.
      • Each horizontal row of elements (from left to right) is called a period.
      • As you move across a period, the physical and chemical properties follow a pattern.
      Section 1 Arranging the Elements Chapter 7
    • Decoding the Periodic Table , continued
      • Each vertical column of elements (from top to bottom) is called a group, or family.
      • Elements in the same group often have similar chemical and physical properties.
      • All of the elements follow the periodic law.
      Section 1 Arranging the Elements Chapter 7
    • Decoding the Periodic Table , continued
      • The periodic law states that the repeating chemical and physical properties of elements change periodically with the atomic numbers of the elements.
      • All atoms of the same element have the same number of protons in the nucleus. Atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.
      Section 1 Arranging the Elements Chapter 7
    • Bellringer
      • In your Science Journal, write what you have heard or read about the terms alkali and alkaline. For each instance, describe the context in which these terms were used.
      Section 2 Grouping the Elements Chapter 7
    • What You Will Learn
      • Elements in a group often have similar properties because their atoms have the same number of electrons in their outer energy level.
      • Hydrogen is set off by itself in the periodic table because its properties do not match the properties of any one group.
      • Metals are in Groups 1-16. Metalloids are in Groups 13-16. Nonmetals are in Groups 14-18. Noble gases are in Group 18.
      Section 2 Grouping the Elements Chapter 7
    • Group 1: Alkali Metals
      • The elements in a group have similar properties because the atoms of the elements have similar numbers of electrons in their outer energy level.
      • In order to have a complete set of electrons in their outer level, atoms will often take, give, or share electrons with other atoms. Elements whose atoms undergo such processes are called reactive.
      Section 2 Grouping the Elements Chapter 7
    • Group 1: Alkali Metals , continued
      • Alkali metals are elements in Group 1 of the periodic table.
      • Alkali metals are the most reactive metals. Their atoms easily give away the one electron in the outer level of their atoms.
      • Alkali metals are so reactive that in nature they are found only combined with other elements.
      Section 2 Grouping the Elements Chapter 7
    • The Periodic Table Chapter 7
    • Group 2: Alkaline-Earth Metals
      • Alkaline-earth metals are elements in Group 2. They are less reactive than alkali metals are.
      • Atoms of alkaline-earth metals have two electrons in their outer level.
      • Group 2 elements and their compounds have many uses.
      Section 2 Grouping the Elements Chapter 7
    • Groups 3-12: Transition Metals
      • Elements of Groups 3-12 are called transition metals.
      • Transition metals are less reactive than alkali metals and alkaline-earth metals.
      • The lanthanides and actinides make up two rows of transition metals that are placed at the bottom of the table to save space.
      Section 2 Grouping the Elements Chapter 7
    • Groups 3-12: Transition Metals , continued
      • Transition metals have 1 or 2 electrons in the outer level of their atoms. So, the properties of the transition metals vary.
      • But because these elements are metals, they share the properties of metals.
      Section 2 Grouping the Elements Chapter 7
    • Group 13: Boron Group
      • The elements in Group 13 have 3 electrons in the outer level of their atoms.
      • Elements in Group 13 are reactive.
      • Group 13 contains one metalloid and five metals. Aluminum is the most common element in Group 13.
      Section 2 Grouping the Elements Chapter 7
    • Group 14: Carbon Group
      • The elements in Group 14 have 4 electrons in the outer level of their atoms. Their reactivity varies.
      • Group 14 contains metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.
      • Diamond and soot are both natural forms of the nonmetal carbon.
      Section 2 Grouping the Elements Chapter 7
    • Group 15: Nitrogen Group
      • The elements in Group 15 have 5 electrons in the outer level of their atoms. Their reactivity varies.
      • Group 15 contains metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.
      Section 2 Grouping the Elements Chapter 7
    • Group 16: Oxygen Group
      • The elements in Group 16 have 6 electrons in the outer level of their atoms. These elements are reactive.
      • Group 16 contains metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.
      Section 2 Grouping the Elements Chapter 7
    • Group 17: Halogens
      • The elements in Group 17 are called halogens. They have 7 electrons in the outer level of their atoms.
      • Halogens are very reactive because their atoms need to gain only one electron to have a complete outer level.
      • All halogens are nonmetals.
      Section 2 Grouping the Elements Chapter 7
    • The Periodic Table Chapter 7
    • Group 18: Noble Gases
      • The elements in Group 18 are called noble gases. Atoms of noble gases have a full set of electrons in their outer level.
      • Noble gases are unreactive. These elements were first called inert gases.
      • All noble gases are nonmetals.
      Section 2 Grouping the Elements Chapter 7
    • Hydrogen
      • The properties of hydrogen do not match the properties of any single group, so hydrogen is set apart in the table.
      • Hydrogen has one electron in the outer level of its atoms. Hydrogen is reactive.
      • Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe.
      Section 2 Grouping the Elements Chapter 7
    • Concept Map Chapter 7 The Periodic Table Use the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide. nonmetals periodic table families elements periods metals electrons
    • The Periodic Table Chapter 7 Concept Map
    • The Periodic Table Chapter 7 Concept Map
    • End of Chapter 7 Show The Periodic Table Chapter 7
      • 1. Which of the following words is the closest in meaning to the word regular?
        • A. periodic
        • B. limited
        • C. seasonal
        • D. ordered
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 1. Which of the following words is the closest in meaning to the word regular?
        • A. periodic
        • B. limited
        • C. seasonal
        • D. ordered
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 2. In the sentence “Salts are compounds made of a metal and a nonmetal,” what does the word compounds mean?
        • A. substances that cannot be broken down into simpler ones
        • B. substances made of two or more substances without chemical bonding
        • C. the materials or elements that make up a substance
        • D. substances made by the combination of two or more different things
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 2. In the sentence “Salts are compounds made of a metal and a nonmetal,” what does the word compounds mean?
        • A. substances that cannot be broken down into simpler ones
        • B. substances made of two or more substances without chemical bonding
        • C. the materials or elements that make up a substance
        • D. substances made by the combination of two or more different things
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 3. Which of the following sets of words best completes the following sentence: “A certain region of the periodic table _____ metals”?
        • A. corresponds to
        • B. correspond by
        • C. corresponding of
        • D. corresponded in
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 3. Which of the following sets of words best completes the following sentence: “A certain region of the periodic table _____ metals”?
        • A. corresponds to
        • B. correspond by
        • C. corresponding of
        • D. corresponded in
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 4. Choose the appropriate form of the word specific in the following sentence: “Elements have a _____number of protons.”
        • A. specify
        • B. specific
        • C. specification
        • D. specifically
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 4. Choose the appropriate form of the word specific in the following sentence: “Elements have a _____number of protons.”
        • A. specify
        • B. specific
        • C. specification
        • D. specifically
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 5. According to the periodic table, which elements form the compound CO 2 ?
        • A. cobalt and osmium
        • B. carbon and oxygen
        • C. copper and osmium
        • D. calcium and oxygen
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 5. According to the periodic table, which elements form the compound CO 2 ?
        • A. cobalt and osmium
        • B. carbon and oxygen
        • C. copper and osmium
        • D. calcium and oxygen
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 6. According to its location on the periodic table, sodium can be described as
        • A. an alkaline-earth metal.
        • B. a transition metal.
        • C. an alkali metal.
        • D. a metalloid.
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 6. According to its location on the periodic table, sodium can be described as
        • A. an alkaline-earth metal.
        • B. a transition metal.
        • C. an alkali metal.
        • D. a metalloid.
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 7. What is the purpose of the zigzag line on the right side of the periodic table?
        • A. It marks the border between the alkali metals and the transition metals.
        • B. It indicates a family of elements that have the same chemical properties.
        • C. It connects the elements in the table that have the same atomic number.
        • D. It divides the metals and nonmetals, and shows where the metalloids are.
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 7. What is the purpose of the zigzag line on the right side of the periodic table?
        • A. It marks the border between the alkali metals and the transition metals.
        • B. It indicates a family of elements that have the same chemical properties.
        • C. It connects the elements in the table that have the same atomic number.
        • D. It divides the metals and nonmetals, and shows where the metalloids are.
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • Use the diagram below to answer the next question.
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 8. What does the number at the top of the square above tell you about carbon?
        • A. Carbon has 6 protons in its nucleus.
        • B. Carbon has an average atomic mass of 12.0.
        • C. Carbon has 12 isotopes.
        • D. Carbon has 6 electrons in its outer level.
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 8. What does the number at the top of the square above tell you about carbon?
        • A. Carbon has 6 protons in its nucleus.
        • B. Carbon has an average atomic mass of 12.0.
        • C. Carbon has 12 isotopes.
        • D. Carbon has 6 electrons in its outer level.
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 9. Elements that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons in the nucleus are called
        • A. periods.
        • B. metalloids.
        • C. groups.
        • D. isotopes.
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 9. Elements that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons in the nucleus are called
        • A. periods.
        • B. metalloids.
        • C. groups.
        • D. isotopes.
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 10. Which of the following best describes the properties of metals?
        • A. hard, brittle, and unconductive
        • B. liquid, dark, and conductive
        • C. shiny, malleable, and conductive
        • D. soft, oily, and very reactive
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 10. Which of the following best describes the properties of metals?
        • A. hard, brittle, and unconductive
        • B. liquid, dark, and conductive
        • C. shiny, malleable, and conductive
        • D. soft, oily, and very reactive
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 11. In what order are the regions arranged on the periodic table, reading from left to right?
        • A. inert gases, metals, nonmetals, metalloids
        • B. metalloids, metals, nonmetals, inert gases
        • C. metals, metalloids, nonmetals, inert gases
        • D. nonmetals, inert gases, metals, metalloids
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 11. In what order are the regions arranged on the periodic table, reading from left to right?
        • A. inert gases, metals, nonmetals, metalloids
        • B. metalloids, metals, nonmetals, inert gases
        • C. metals, metalloids, nonmetals, inert gases
        • D. nonmetals, inert gases, metals, metalloids
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 12. Fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine make up group 17, the halogens. Why are these elements grouped together?
        • A. They are all very reactive nonmetals with similar chemical properties.
        • B. They are all nonreactive gases with similar physical properties.
        • C. Their atoms all have 8 electrons in their outer energy levels.
        • D. They all have the same atomic number.
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 12. Fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine make up group 17, the halogens. Why are these elements grouped together?
        • A. They are all very reactive nonmetals with similar chemical properties.
        • B. They are all nonreactive gases with similar physical properties.
        • C. Their atoms all have 8 electrons in their outer energy levels.
        • D. They all have the same atomic number.
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 13. Which of the following would be the best way to compare the densities of two rock samples?
        • A. Divide each rock’s mass by its volume. The rock with the higher number is denser.
        • B. Measure the rocks in a graduated cylinder. The one that displaces more water is denser.
        • C. Use a balance to measure the samples. The higher number is the denser rock.
        • D. Hold the samples in your hands. The rock that feels heavier is denser.
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 13. Which of the following would be the best way to compare the densities of two rock samples?
        • A. Divide each rock’s mass by its volume. The rock with the higher number is denser.
        • B. Measure the rocks in a graduated cylinder. The one that displaces more water is denser.
        • C. Use a balance to measure the samples. The higher number is the denser rock.
        • D. Hold the samples in your hands. The rock that feels heavier is denser.
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 14. Which of the following describes a chemical property of rubbing alcohol?
        • A. It is colorless.
        • B. It has a stronger odor.
        • C. It evaporates quickly.
        • D. It burns easily.
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 14. Which of the following describes a chemical property of rubbing alcohol?
        • A. It is colorless.
        • B. It has a stronger odor.
        • C. It evaporates quickly.
        • D. It burns easily.
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • Use the diagram below to answer the next question.
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 15. Which of the following can be found at point A?
        • A. electrons
        • B. protons
        • C. ions
        • D. electron clouds
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
      • 15. Which of the following can be found at point A?
        • A. electrons
        • B. protons
        • C. ions
        • D. electron clouds
      Chapter 7 Standards Assessment
    • Chapter 7