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2. Resources Chapter Presentation Image Bank Math Focus Bellringers Standards Assessment Visual Concepts
3. Table of Contents <ul><li>Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2 The Atom </li></ul>Chapter 6 Introduction to Atoms
4. Bellringer <ul><li>In your Science Journal, draw a picture that shows what you think an atom looks like. On your drawing, include labels for the locations of protons, neutrons, and electrons. </li></ul>Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
5. What You Will Learn <ul><li>There have been different models of the atom over time. </li></ul><ul><li>The atomic theory has changed as scientists have experimented and discovered new information about the atom. </li></ul>Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
6. The Beginning of Atomic Theory <ul><li>Matter is made of particles that we call atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>An atom is the smallest particle into which an element can be divided and still have the properties of that element. </li></ul>Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
7. Atom Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
8. Dalton’s Atomic Theory Based on Experiments <ul><li>By the late 1700s, scientists had learned that elements combine in certain proportions based on mass to form compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Dalton’s atomic theory, published in 1803, suggested that elements combine in certain proportions because they are made of atoms. </li></ul>Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
9. Thomson’s Discovery of Electrons <ul><li>In 1897, Thomson’s experiments led him to conclude that there must be negatively charged particles inside the atom. These particles are now called electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>An electron is a subatomic particle that has a negative charge. </li></ul>Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
10. Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
11. Rutherford’s Atomic “Shooting Gallery” <ul><li>In 1909, Rutherford designed an experiment to study the parts of an atom. </li></ul><ul><li>The results of Rutherford’s gold-foil experiment suggested that atoms are not all the same throughout. He concluded that atoms have different parts. </li></ul>Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
12. Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
13. The Nucleus and the Electrons <ul><li>Rutherford’s results led him to conclude that most matter in an atom is found in one very small area. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1911, Rutherford revised the atomic theory and proposed that in the center of the atom is a tiny, extremely dense, positively charged area called the nucleus. </li></ul>Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
14. The Nucleus and the Electrons , continued <ul><li>In physical science, the nucleus is an atom’s central region which is made of protons and neutrons. </li></ul><ul><li>From Rutherford’s results, the important idea emerged that atoms are mostly empty space with a tiny, massive nucleus at the center and electrons surrounding the nucleus. </li></ul>Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
15. The Nucleus and the Electrons , continued <ul><li>In 1913, Bohr’s results led him to propose that electrons move around the nucleus in definite paths. </li></ul><ul><li>According to modern atomic theory, electrons are likely to be found moving in certain regions around the nucleus of an atom. These regions are called electron clouds, or orbitals . </li></ul>Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
16. The Nucleus and the Electrons , continued <ul><li>Electron clouds are regions around the nucleus of an atom where electrons are likely to be found. Each electron cloud has a definite energy level. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, each electron in an atom has a definite energy based on which electron cloud the electron is moving in. </li></ul>Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
17. Electron Cloud Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
18. The Size of an Atom <ul><li>Atoms are so small that light waves are too large to be used to observe them. Scientists use scanning tunneling electron microscopes to provide images of atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>However, these images are not an actual picture of the atom. They show an image of the surface of a material at the atomic level. </li></ul>Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
19. Bellringer <ul><li>An atom is the smallest particle of an element. </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms are made of protons, neutrons, and electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Write a paragraph in your Science Journal explaining how the two sentences above relate to one another. Are they both true? If so, how is that possible? </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
20. What You Will Learn <ul><li>Protons, neutrons, and electrons make up atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons in the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>Isotopes of an element differ by the number of neutrons in the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic mass is an average of the masses of all of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element. </li></ul><ul><li>Four forces are at work in atoms. </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
21. The Parts of an Atom <ul><li>Almost all kinds of atoms are made of the same three particles. These particles are protons, neutrons, and electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Protons, neutrons, and electrons are called subatomic particles because they are each much smaller than an atom. </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
22. The Parts of an Atom , continued <ul><li>The number of subatomic particles that are in an atom and the way the particles interact determine the properties of an atom. </li></ul><ul><li>A proton is a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is located in the nucleus of an atom. </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
23. The Parts of an Atom , continued <ul><li>A neutron is a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is located in the nucleus of an atom. </li></ul><ul><li>An electron is a subatomic particle that has a negative charge and that is found outside the nucleus in electron clouds. </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
24. The Parts of an Atom , continued <ul><li>The charges of protons and electrons are opposite but equal, so the charges cancel out. If the numbers of electrons and protons become unequal, the atom becomes a charged particle called an ion. </li></ul><ul><li>The SI unit that is used to express the mass of a particle in an atom is the atomic mass unit (amu). </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
25. Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
26. Atoms and Elements <ul><li>There are more than 110 different elements. The atoms of each of these elements are different from the atoms of all other elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons and protons are found in all atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>An atom does not have to have equal numbers of neutrons and protons. </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
27. Atoms and Elements , continued <ul><li>The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. </li></ul><ul><li>All atoms of the same element have the same atomic number. </li></ul><ul><li>The atomic number of each element is listed on the periodic table. </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
28. Atomic Number Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
29. Isotopes <ul><li>An isotope is an atom that has the same number of protons as other atoms of the same element do, but has a different number of neutrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms that are isotopes of each other are always the same element, because isotopes of the same element always have the same number of protons. </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
30. Isotopes , continued <ul><li>Some isotopes of an element have special properties because they are unstable. An unstable atom is an atom with a nucleus that will change over time. This type of atom is radioactive. </li></ul><ul><li>Isotopes of an element share most of the same chemical and physical properties. </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
31. Isotopes , continued <ul><li>Each isotope of an element can be identified by its mass number. The mass number is the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. </li></ul><ul><li>To identify a specific isotope of an element, write the name of the element followed by a hyphen and the mass number of the isotope. </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
32. Mass Number Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
33. Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
34. Isotopes , continued <ul><li>Most elements contain a mixture of two or more isotopes. </li></ul><ul><li>The atomic mass of an element is the weighted average of the masses of all the naturally occurring isotopes of that element. </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
35. Forces in Atoms <ul><li>There are four basic forces that are at work everywhere in nature, even within the atom. These forces are gravitational force, electromagnetic force, strong force, and weak force. </li></ul><ul><li>These four forces work together to give an atom its structure and properties. </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
36. Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
37. Concept Map Chapter 6 Introduction to Atoms Use the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide. atoms electrons atomic number nucleus mass number isotopes protons
38. Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6 Concept Map
39. Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6 Concept Map
40. End of Chapter 6 Show Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
41. <ul><li>1. Which of the following words is the closest in meaning to the word distinct ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. separate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. similar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. approximate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. varying </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
42. <ul><li>1. Which of the following words is the closest in meaning to the word distinct ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. separate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. similar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. approximate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. varying </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
43. <ul><li>2. In the sentence “The structure of a substance is determined by its atoms,” what does the word structure mean? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. destruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. elements </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
44. <ul><li>2. In the sentence “The structure of a substance is determined by its atoms,” what does the word structure mean? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. destruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. elements </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
45. <ul><li>3. Which of the following words best completes the following sentence: “An element has a _____ number of protons in its nucleus”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. large </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. differing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. negative </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
46. <ul><li>3. Which of the following words best completes the following sentence: “An element has a _____ number of protons in its nucleus”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. large </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. differing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. negative </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
47. <ul><li>4. Which of the following words is closest in meaning to the word investigation ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. inquiry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. gathering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. development </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
48. <ul><li>4. Which of the following words is closest in meaning to the word investigation ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. inquiry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. gathering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. development </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
49. <ul><li>5. All matter is made up of atoms. Which sentence correctly describes atoms? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. All substances are made of the same atoms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Atoms are the smallest particle of a nucleus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. An atom is the smallest particle of an element. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. An atom is a substance that has been cut in half. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
50. <ul><li>5. All matter is made up of atoms. Which sentence correctly describes atoms? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. All substances are made of the same atoms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Atoms are the smallest particle of a nucleus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. An atom is the smallest particle of an element. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. An atom is a substance that has been cut in half. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
51. <ul><li>6. The particles inside an atom that are negatively charged are called </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. protons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. neutrons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. nuclei. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. electrons. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
52. <ul><li>6. The particles inside an atom that are negatively charged are called </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. protons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. neutrons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. nuclei. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. electrons. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
53. <ul><li>Use the diagram below to answer the next question. </li></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
54. <ul><li>7. In Rutherford’s “Shooting Gallery” experiment, represented in the diagram above, what were the results? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Some particles were deflected, some passed through, and some bounced back, suggesting the existence of a nucleus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Only one of the particles passed through the foil, suggesting that atoms were denser than previously thought. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Almost all of the particles hit the foil and bounced back, proving Thomson’s hypothesis of atomic structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Many particles were deflected, proving that electrons do not travel in predictable paths. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
55. <ul><li>7. In Rutherford’s “Shooting Gallery” experiment, represented in the diagram above, what were the results? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Some particles were deflected, some passed through, and some bounced back, suggesting the existence of a nucleus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Only one of the particles passed through the foil, suggesting that atoms were denser than previously thought. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Almost all of the particles hit the foil and bounced back, proving Thomson’s hypothesis of atomic structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Many particles were deflected, proving that electrons do not travel in predictable paths. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
56. <ul><li>Use the diagram below to answer the next question. </li></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
57. <ul><li>8. What principle of electromagnetic force is shown in the above diagram of an atom? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Particles with the same charge have no effect on each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Particles with opposite charges attract each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Electromagnetic forces repel objects from around the nucleus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Protons and neutrons repel each other because they have the same charge. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
58. <ul><li>8. What principle of electromagnetic force is shown in the above diagram of an atom? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Particles with the same charge have no effect on each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Particles with opposite charges attract each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Electromagnetic forces repel objects from around the nucleus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Protons and neutrons repel each other because they have the same charge. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
59. <ul><li>9. How can you determine the atomic number of an atom? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. by counting its protons and neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. by determining the atomic mass unit of the atom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. by counting the number of protons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. by determining the number of electrons in its outermost energy level </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
60. <ul><li>9. How can you determine the atomic number of an atom? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. by counting its protons and neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. by determining the atomic mass unit of the atom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. by counting the number of protons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. by determining the number of electrons in its outermost energy level </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
61. <ul><li>10. When two atoms have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons, they are called </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. isotopes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. nuclei. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. ions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. helium. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
62. <ul><li>10. When two atoms have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons, they are called </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. isotopes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. nuclei. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. ions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. helium. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
63. <ul><li>11. Careful investigations can answer meaningful questions. Which of the following is an example of an investigation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. reading about protons in a textbook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. testing the atomic theory with an experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. writing and outline of a chapter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. drawing a diagram of an atom </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
64. <ul><li>11. Careful investigations can answer meaningful questions. Which of the following is an example of an investigation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. reading about protons in a textbook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. testing the atomic theory with an experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. writing and outline of a chapter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. drawing a diagram of an atom </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
65. <ul><li>12. Appropriate tools are needed to determine data in an experiment. Which tool would a scientist use to observe atoms? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. an electron-cloud model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. a scientific calculator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. an electron microscope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. a cathode-ray tube </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
66. <ul><li>12. Appropriate tools are needed to determine data in an experiment. Which tool would a scientist use to observe atoms? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. an electron-cloud model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. a scientific calculator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. an electron microscope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. a cathode-ray tube </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
67. <ul><li>13. Appropriate research materials need to be used to collect evidence. Which source would be best for finding information on naming isotopes? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. a newspaper article about the discovery of atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. a science Web site written by a seventh-grade student </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. a movie about a fictional scientist who splits atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. a book about determining the mass of atoms </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
68. <ul><li>13. Appropriate research materials need to be used to collect evidence. Which source would be best for finding information on naming isotopes? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. a newspaper article about the discovery of atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. a science Web site written by a seventh-grade student </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. a movie about a fictional scientist who splits atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. a book about determining the mass of atoms </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
69. <ul><li>14. Elements are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. the substances that make up all matter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. ions that have been positively charged. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. the combination of particles in a molecule. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. the nuclei in isotopic atoms. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
70. <ul><li>14. Elements are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. the substances that make up all matter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. ions that have been positively charged. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. the combination of particles in a molecule. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. the nuclei in isotopic atoms. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
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