Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy.

Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details.

Like this presentation? Why not share!

No Downloads

Total views

1,858

On SlideShare

0

From Embeds

0

Number of Embeds

3

Shares

0

Downloads

28

Comments

0

Likes

1

No embeds

No notes for slide

- 1. <ul><li>To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects </li></ul><ul><li>select “View” on the menu bar and click on “Slide Show.” </li></ul><ul><li>To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar . </li></ul><ul><li>From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. </li></ul><ul><li>From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lesson’s presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key . </li></ul>How to Use This Presentation
- 2. Resources Chapter Presentation Image Bank Math Focus Bellringers Standards Assessment Visual Concepts
- 3. Table of Contents <ul><li>Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2 The Atom </li></ul>Chapter 6 Introduction to Atoms
- 4. Bellringer <ul><li>In your Science Journal, draw a picture that shows what you think an atom looks like. On your drawing, include labels for the locations of protons, neutrons, and electrons. </li></ul>Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
- 5. What You Will Learn <ul><li>There have been different models of the atom over time. </li></ul><ul><li>The atomic theory has changed as scientists have experimented and discovered new information about the atom. </li></ul>Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
- 6. The Beginning of Atomic Theory <ul><li>Matter is made of particles that we call atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>An atom is the smallest particle into which an element can be divided and still have the properties of that element. </li></ul>Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
- 7. Atom Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
- 8. Dalton’s Atomic Theory Based on Experiments <ul><li>By the late 1700s, scientists had learned that elements combine in certain proportions based on mass to form compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Dalton’s atomic theory, published in 1803, suggested that elements combine in certain proportions because they are made of atoms. </li></ul>Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
- 9. Thomson’s Discovery of Electrons <ul><li>In 1897, Thomson’s experiments led him to conclude that there must be negatively charged particles inside the atom. These particles are now called electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>An electron is a subatomic particle that has a negative charge. </li></ul>Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
- 10. Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
- 11. Rutherford’s Atomic “Shooting Gallery” <ul><li>In 1909, Rutherford designed an experiment to study the parts of an atom. </li></ul><ul><li>The results of Rutherford’s gold-foil experiment suggested that atoms are not all the same throughout. He concluded that atoms have different parts. </li></ul>Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
- 12. Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
- 13. The Nucleus and the Electrons <ul><li>Rutherford’s results led him to conclude that most matter in an atom is found in one very small area. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1911, Rutherford revised the atomic theory and proposed that in the center of the atom is a tiny, extremely dense, positively charged area called the nucleus. </li></ul>Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
- 14. The Nucleus and the Electrons , continued <ul><li>In physical science, the nucleus is an atom’s central region which is made of protons and neutrons. </li></ul><ul><li>From Rutherford’s results, the important idea emerged that atoms are mostly empty space with a tiny, massive nucleus at the center and electrons surrounding the nucleus. </li></ul>Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
- 15. The Nucleus and the Electrons , continued <ul><li>In 1913, Bohr’s results led him to propose that electrons move around the nucleus in definite paths. </li></ul><ul><li>According to modern atomic theory, electrons are likely to be found moving in certain regions around the nucleus of an atom. These regions are called electron clouds, or orbitals . </li></ul>Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
- 16. The Nucleus and the Electrons , continued <ul><li>Electron clouds are regions around the nucleus of an atom where electrons are likely to be found. Each electron cloud has a definite energy level. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, each electron in an atom has a definite energy based on which electron cloud the electron is moving in. </li></ul>Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
- 17. Electron Cloud Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
- 18. The Size of an Atom <ul><li>Atoms are so small that light waves are too large to be used to observe them. Scientists use scanning tunneling electron microscopes to provide images of atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>However, these images are not an actual picture of the atom. They show an image of the surface of a material at the atomic level. </li></ul>Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
- 19. Bellringer <ul><li>An atom is the smallest particle of an element. </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms are made of protons, neutrons, and electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Write a paragraph in your Science Journal explaining how the two sentences above relate to one another. Are they both true? If so, how is that possible? </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
- 20. What You Will Learn <ul><li>Protons, neutrons, and electrons make up atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons in the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>Isotopes of an element differ by the number of neutrons in the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic mass is an average of the masses of all of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element. </li></ul><ul><li>Four forces are at work in atoms. </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
- 21. The Parts of an Atom <ul><li>Almost all kinds of atoms are made of the same three particles. These particles are protons, neutrons, and electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Protons, neutrons, and electrons are called subatomic particles because they are each much smaller than an atom. </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
- 22. The Parts of an Atom , continued <ul><li>The number of subatomic particles that are in an atom and the way the particles interact determine the properties of an atom. </li></ul><ul><li>A proton is a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is located in the nucleus of an atom. </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
- 23. The Parts of an Atom , continued <ul><li>A neutron is a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is located in the nucleus of an atom. </li></ul><ul><li>An electron is a subatomic particle that has a negative charge and that is found outside the nucleus in electron clouds. </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
- 24. The Parts of an Atom , continued <ul><li>The charges of protons and electrons are opposite but equal, so the charges cancel out. If the numbers of electrons and protons become unequal, the atom becomes a charged particle called an ion. </li></ul><ul><li>The SI unit that is used to express the mass of a particle in an atom is the atomic mass unit (amu). </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
- 25. Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
- 26. Atoms and Elements <ul><li>There are more than 110 different elements. The atoms of each of these elements are different from the atoms of all other elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons and protons are found in all atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>An atom does not have to have equal numbers of neutrons and protons. </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
- 27. Atoms and Elements , continued <ul><li>The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. </li></ul><ul><li>All atoms of the same element have the same atomic number. </li></ul><ul><li>The atomic number of each element is listed on the periodic table. </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
- 28. Atomic Number Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
- 29. Isotopes <ul><li>An isotope is an atom that has the same number of protons as other atoms of the same element do, but has a different number of neutrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms that are isotopes of each other are always the same element, because isotopes of the same element always have the same number of protons. </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
- 30. Isotopes , continued <ul><li>Some isotopes of an element have special properties because they are unstable. An unstable atom is an atom with a nucleus that will change over time. This type of atom is radioactive. </li></ul><ul><li>Isotopes of an element share most of the same chemical and physical properties. </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
- 31. Isotopes , continued <ul><li>Each isotope of an element can be identified by its mass number. The mass number is the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. </li></ul><ul><li>To identify a specific isotope of an element, write the name of the element followed by a hyphen and the mass number of the isotope. </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
- 32. Mass Number Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
- 33. Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
- 34. Isotopes , continued <ul><li>Most elements contain a mixture of two or more isotopes. </li></ul><ul><li>The atomic mass of an element is the weighted average of the masses of all the naturally occurring isotopes of that element. </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
- 35. Forces in Atoms <ul><li>There are four basic forces that are at work everywhere in nature, even within the atom. These forces are gravitational force, electromagnetic force, strong force, and weak force. </li></ul><ul><li>These four forces work together to give an atom its structure and properties. </li></ul>Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
- 36. Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
- 37. Concept Map Chapter 6 Introduction to Atoms Use the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide. atoms electrons atomic number nucleus mass number isotopes protons
- 38. Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6 Concept Map
- 39. Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6 Concept Map
- 40. End of Chapter 6 Show Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
- 41. <ul><li>1. Which of the following words is the closest in meaning to the word distinct ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. separate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. similar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. approximate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. varying </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 42. <ul><li>1. Which of the following words is the closest in meaning to the word distinct ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. separate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. similar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. approximate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. varying </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 43. <ul><li>2. In the sentence “The structure of a substance is determined by its atoms,” what does the word structure mean? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. destruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. elements </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 44. <ul><li>2. In the sentence “The structure of a substance is determined by its atoms,” what does the word structure mean? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. destruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. elements </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 45. <ul><li>3. Which of the following words best completes the following sentence: “An element has a _____ number of protons in its nucleus”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. large </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. differing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. negative </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 46. <ul><li>3. Which of the following words best completes the following sentence: “An element has a _____ number of protons in its nucleus”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. large </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. differing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. negative </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 47. <ul><li>4. Which of the following words is closest in meaning to the word investigation ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. inquiry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. gathering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. development </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 48. <ul><li>4. Which of the following words is closest in meaning to the word investigation ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. inquiry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. gathering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. development </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 49. <ul><li>5. All matter is made up of atoms. Which sentence correctly describes atoms? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. All substances are made of the same atoms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Atoms are the smallest particle of a nucleus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. An atom is the smallest particle of an element. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. An atom is a substance that has been cut in half. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 50. <ul><li>5. All matter is made up of atoms. Which sentence correctly describes atoms? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. All substances are made of the same atoms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Atoms are the smallest particle of a nucleus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. An atom is the smallest particle of an element. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. An atom is a substance that has been cut in half. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 51. <ul><li>6. The particles inside an atom that are negatively charged are called </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. protons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. neutrons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. nuclei. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. electrons. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 52. <ul><li>6. The particles inside an atom that are negatively charged are called </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. protons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. neutrons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. nuclei. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. electrons. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 53. <ul><li>Use the diagram below to answer the next question. </li></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 54. <ul><li>7. In Rutherford’s “Shooting Gallery” experiment, represented in the diagram above, what were the results? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Some particles were deflected, some passed through, and some bounced back, suggesting the existence of a nucleus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Only one of the particles passed through the foil, suggesting that atoms were denser than previously thought. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Almost all of the particles hit the foil and bounced back, proving Thomson’s hypothesis of atomic structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Many particles were deflected, proving that electrons do not travel in predictable paths. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 55. <ul><li>7. In Rutherford’s “Shooting Gallery” experiment, represented in the diagram above, what were the results? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Some particles were deflected, some passed through, and some bounced back, suggesting the existence of a nucleus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Only one of the particles passed through the foil, suggesting that atoms were denser than previously thought. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Almost all of the particles hit the foil and bounced back, proving Thomson’s hypothesis of atomic structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Many particles were deflected, proving that electrons do not travel in predictable paths. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 56. <ul><li>Use the diagram below to answer the next question. </li></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 57. <ul><li>8. What principle of electromagnetic force is shown in the above diagram of an atom? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Particles with the same charge have no effect on each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Particles with opposite charges attract each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Electromagnetic forces repel objects from around the nucleus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Protons and neutrons repel each other because they have the same charge. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 58. <ul><li>8. What principle of electromagnetic force is shown in the above diagram of an atom? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Particles with the same charge have no effect on each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Particles with opposite charges attract each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Electromagnetic forces repel objects from around the nucleus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Protons and neutrons repel each other because they have the same charge. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 59. <ul><li>9. How can you determine the atomic number of an atom? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. by counting its protons and neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. by determining the atomic mass unit of the atom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. by counting the number of protons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. by determining the number of electrons in its outermost energy level </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 60. <ul><li>9. How can you determine the atomic number of an atom? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. by counting its protons and neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. by determining the atomic mass unit of the atom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. by counting the number of protons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. by determining the number of electrons in its outermost energy level </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 61. <ul><li>10. When two atoms have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons, they are called </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. isotopes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. nuclei. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. ions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. helium. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 62. <ul><li>10. When two atoms have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons, they are called </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. isotopes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. nuclei. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. ions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. helium. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 63. <ul><li>11. Careful investigations can answer meaningful questions. Which of the following is an example of an investigation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. reading about protons in a textbook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. testing the atomic theory with an experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. writing and outline of a chapter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. drawing a diagram of an atom </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 64. <ul><li>11. Careful investigations can answer meaningful questions. Which of the following is an example of an investigation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. reading about protons in a textbook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. testing the atomic theory with an experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. writing and outline of a chapter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. drawing a diagram of an atom </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 65. <ul><li>12. Appropriate tools are needed to determine data in an experiment. Which tool would a scientist use to observe atoms? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. an electron-cloud model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. a scientific calculator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. an electron microscope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. a cathode-ray tube </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 66. <ul><li>12. Appropriate tools are needed to determine data in an experiment. Which tool would a scientist use to observe atoms? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. an electron-cloud model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. a scientific calculator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. an electron microscope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. a cathode-ray tube </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 67. <ul><li>13. Appropriate research materials need to be used to collect evidence. Which source would be best for finding information on naming isotopes? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. a newspaper article about the discovery of atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. a science Web site written by a seventh-grade student </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. a movie about a fictional scientist who splits atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. a book about determining the mass of atoms </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 68. <ul><li>13. Appropriate research materials need to be used to collect evidence. Which source would be best for finding information on naming isotopes? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. a newspaper article about the discovery of atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. a science Web site written by a seventh-grade student </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. a movie about a fictional scientist who splits atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. a book about determining the mass of atoms </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 69. <ul><li>14. Elements are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. the substances that make up all matter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. ions that have been positively charged. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. the combination of particles in a molecule. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. the nuclei in isotopic atoms. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 70. <ul><li>14. Elements are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. the substances that make up all matter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. ions that have been positively charged. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. the combination of particles in a molecule. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. the nuclei in isotopic atoms. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
- 71. Chapter 6

No public clipboards found for this slide

Be the first to comment