Phyical Science CH 6

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  • 1.
    • To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects
    • select “View” on the menu bar and click on “Slide Show.”
    • To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar .
    • From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource.
    • From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lesson’s presentation.
    • You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key .
    How to Use This Presentation
  • 2. Resources Chapter Presentation Image Bank Math Focus Bellringers Standards Assessment Visual Concepts
  • 3. Table of Contents
    • Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory
    • Section 2 The Atom
    Chapter 6 Introduction to Atoms
  • 4. Bellringer
    • In your Science Journal, draw a picture that shows what you think an atom looks like. On your drawing, include labels for the locations of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
    Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
  • 5. What You Will Learn
    • There have been different models of the atom over time.
    • The atomic theory has changed as scientists have experimented and discovered new information about the atom.
    Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
  • 6. The Beginning of Atomic Theory
    • Matter is made of particles that we call atoms.
    • An atom is the smallest particle into which an element can be divided and still have the properties of that element.
    Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
  • 7. Atom Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
  • 8. Dalton’s Atomic Theory Based on Experiments
    • By the late 1700s, scientists had learned that elements combine in certain proportions based on mass to form compounds.
    • Dalton’s atomic theory, published in 1803, suggested that elements combine in certain proportions because they are made of atoms.
    Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
  • 9. Thomson’s Discovery of Electrons
    • In 1897, Thomson’s experiments led him to conclude that there must be negatively charged particles inside the atom. These particles are now called electrons.
    • An electron is a subatomic particle that has a negative charge.
    Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
  • 10. Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
  • 11. Rutherford’s Atomic “Shooting Gallery”
    • In 1909, Rutherford designed an experiment to study the parts of an atom.
    • The results of Rutherford’s gold-foil experiment suggested that atoms are not all the same throughout. He concluded that atoms have different parts.
    Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
  • 12. Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
  • 13. The Nucleus and the Electrons
    • Rutherford’s results led him to conclude that most matter in an atom is found in one very small area.
    • In 1911, Rutherford revised the atomic theory and proposed that in the center of the atom is a tiny, extremely dense, positively charged area called the nucleus.
    Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
  • 14. The Nucleus and the Electrons , continued
    • In physical science, the nucleus is an atom’s central region which is made of protons and neutrons.
    • From Rutherford’s results, the important idea emerged that atoms are mostly empty space with a tiny, massive nucleus at the center and electrons surrounding the nucleus.
    Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
  • 15. The Nucleus and the Electrons , continued
    • In 1913, Bohr’s results led him to propose that electrons move around the nucleus in definite paths.
    • According to modern atomic theory, electrons are likely to be found moving in certain regions around the nucleus of an atom. These regions are called electron clouds, or orbitals .
    Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
  • 16. The Nucleus and the Electrons , continued
    • Electron clouds are regions around the nucleus of an atom where electrons are likely to be found. Each electron cloud has a definite energy level.
    • Therefore, each electron in an atom has a definite energy based on which electron cloud the electron is moving in.
    Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
  • 17. Electron Cloud Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
  • 18. The Size of an Atom
    • Atoms are so small that light waves are too large to be used to observe them. Scientists use scanning tunneling electron microscopes to provide images of atoms.
    • However, these images are not an actual picture of the atom. They show an image of the surface of a material at the atomic level.
    Section 1 Development of the Atomic Theory Chapter 6
  • 19. Bellringer
    • An atom is the smallest particle of an element.
    • Atoms are made of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
    • Write a paragraph in your Science Journal explaining how the two sentences above relate to one another. Are they both true? If so, how is that possible?
    Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
  • 20. What You Will Learn
    • Protons, neutrons, and electrons make up atoms.
    • All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons in the nucleus.
    • Isotopes of an element differ by the number of neutrons in the nucleus.
    • Atomic mass is an average of the masses of all of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element.
    • Four forces are at work in atoms.
    Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
  • 21. The Parts of an Atom
    • Almost all kinds of atoms are made of the same three particles. These particles are protons, neutrons, and electrons.
    • Protons, neutrons, and electrons are called subatomic particles because they are each much smaller than an atom.
    Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
  • 22. The Parts of an Atom , continued
    • The number of subatomic particles that are in an atom and the way the particles interact determine the properties of an atom.
    • A proton is a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is located in the nucleus of an atom.
    Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
  • 23. The Parts of an Atom , continued
    • A neutron is a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is located in the nucleus of an atom.
    • An electron is a subatomic particle that has a negative charge and that is found outside the nucleus in electron clouds.
    Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
  • 24. The Parts of an Atom , continued
    • The charges of protons and electrons are opposite but equal, so the charges cancel out. If the numbers of electrons and protons become unequal, the atom becomes a charged particle called an ion.
    • The SI unit that is used to express the mass of a particle in an atom is the atomic mass unit (amu).
    Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
  • 25. Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
  • 26. Atoms and Elements
    • There are more than 110 different elements. The atoms of each of these elements are different from the atoms of all other elements.
    • Electrons and protons are found in all atoms.
    • An atom does not have to have equal numbers of neutrons and protons.
    Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
  • 27. Atoms and Elements , continued
    • The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
    • All atoms of the same element have the same atomic number.
    • The atomic number of each element is listed on the periodic table.
    Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
  • 28. Atomic Number Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
  • 29. Isotopes
    • An isotope is an atom that has the same number of protons as other atoms of the same element do, but has a different number of neutrons.
    • Atoms that are isotopes of each other are always the same element, because isotopes of the same element always have the same number of protons.
    Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
  • 30. Isotopes , continued
    • Some isotopes of an element have special properties because they are unstable. An unstable atom is an atom with a nucleus that will change over time. This type of atom is radioactive.
    • Isotopes of an element share most of the same chemical and physical properties.
    Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
  • 31. Isotopes , continued
    • Each isotope of an element can be identified by its mass number. The mass number is the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
    • To identify a specific isotope of an element, write the name of the element followed by a hyphen and the mass number of the isotope.
    Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
  • 32. Mass Number Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
  • 33. Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
  • 34. Isotopes , continued
    • Most elements contain a mixture of two or more isotopes.
    • The atomic mass of an element is the weighted average of the masses of all the naturally occurring isotopes of that element.
    Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
  • 35. Forces in Atoms
    • There are four basic forces that are at work everywhere in nature, even within the atom. These forces are gravitational force, electromagnetic force, strong force, and weak force.
    • These four forces work together to give an atom its structure and properties.
    Section 2 The Atom Chapter 6
  • 36. Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
  • 37. Concept Map Chapter 6 Introduction to Atoms Use the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide. atoms electrons atomic number nucleus mass number isotopes protons
  • 38. Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6 Concept Map
  • 39. Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6 Concept Map
  • 40. End of Chapter 6 Show Introduction to Atoms Chapter 6
  • 41.
    • 1. Which of the following words is the closest in meaning to the word distinct ?
      • A. separate
      • B. similar
      • C. approximate
      • D. varying
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 42.
    • 1. Which of the following words is the closest in meaning to the word distinct ?
      • A. separate
      • B. similar
      • C. approximate
      • D. varying
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 43.
    • 2. In the sentence “The structure of a substance is determined by its atoms,” what does the word structure mean?
      • A. destruction
      • B. resistance
      • C. composition
      • D. elements
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 44.
    • 2. In the sentence “The structure of a substance is determined by its atoms,” what does the word structure mean?
      • A. destruction
      • B. resistance
      • C. composition
      • D. elements
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 45.
    • 3. Which of the following words best completes the following sentence: “An element has a _____ number of protons in its nucleus”?
      • A. large
      • B. specific
      • C. differing
      • D. negative
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 46.
    • 3. Which of the following words best completes the following sentence: “An element has a _____ number of protons in its nucleus”?
      • A. large
      • B. specific
      • C. differing
      • D. negative
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 47.
    • 4. Which of the following words is closest in meaning to the word investigation ?
      • A. plan
      • B. inquiry
      • C. gathering
      • D. development
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 48.
    • 4. Which of the following words is closest in meaning to the word investigation ?
      • A. plan
      • B. inquiry
      • C. gathering
      • D. development
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 49.
    • 5. All matter is made up of atoms. Which sentence correctly describes atoms?
      • A. All substances are made of the same atoms.
      • B. Atoms are the smallest particle of a nucleus.
      • C. An atom is the smallest particle of an element.
      • D. An atom is a substance that has been cut in half.
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 50.
    • 5. All matter is made up of atoms. Which sentence correctly describes atoms?
      • A. All substances are made of the same atoms.
      • B. Atoms are the smallest particle of a nucleus.
      • C. An atom is the smallest particle of an element.
      • D. An atom is a substance that has been cut in half.
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 51.
    • 6. The particles inside an atom that are negatively charged are called
      • A. protons.
      • B. neutrons.
      • C. nuclei.
      • D. electrons.
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 52.
    • 6. The particles inside an atom that are negatively charged are called
      • A. protons.
      • B. neutrons.
      • C. nuclei.
      • D. electrons.
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 53.
    • Use the diagram below to answer the next question.
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 54.
    • 7. In Rutherford’s “Shooting Gallery” experiment, represented in the diagram above, what were the results?
      • A. Some particles were deflected, some passed through, and some bounced back, suggesting the existence of a nucleus.
      • B. Only one of the particles passed through the foil, suggesting that atoms were denser than previously thought.
      • C. Almost all of the particles hit the foil and bounced back, proving Thomson’s hypothesis of atomic structure.
      • D. Many particles were deflected, proving that electrons do not travel in predictable paths.
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 55.
    • 7. In Rutherford’s “Shooting Gallery” experiment, represented in the diagram above, what were the results?
      • A. Some particles were deflected, some passed through, and some bounced back, suggesting the existence of a nucleus.
      • B. Only one of the particles passed through the foil, suggesting that atoms were denser than previously thought.
      • C. Almost all of the particles hit the foil and bounced back, proving Thomson’s hypothesis of atomic structure.
      • D. Many particles were deflected, proving that electrons do not travel in predictable paths.
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 56.
    • Use the diagram below to answer the next question.
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 57.
    • 8. What principle of electromagnetic force is shown in the above diagram of an atom?
      • A. Particles with the same charge have no effect on each other.
      • B. Particles with opposite charges attract each other.
      • C. Electromagnetic forces repel objects from around the nucleus.
      • D. Protons and neutrons repel each other because they have the same charge.
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 58.
    • 8. What principle of electromagnetic force is shown in the above diagram of an atom?
      • A. Particles with the same charge have no effect on each other.
      • B. Particles with opposite charges attract each other.
      • C. Electromagnetic forces repel objects from around the nucleus.
      • D. Protons and neutrons repel each other because they have the same charge.
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 59.
    • 9. How can you determine the atomic number of an atom?
      • A. by counting its protons and neutrons
      • B. by determining the atomic mass unit of the atom
      • C. by counting the number of protons
      • D. by determining the number of electrons in its outermost energy level
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 60.
    • 9. How can you determine the atomic number of an atom?
      • A. by counting its protons and neutrons
      • B. by determining the atomic mass unit of the atom
      • C. by counting the number of protons
      • D. by determining the number of electrons in its outermost energy level
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 61.
    • 10. When two atoms have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons, they are called
      • A. isotopes.
      • B. nuclei.
      • C. ions.
      • D. helium.
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 62.
    • 10. When two atoms have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons, they are called
      • A. isotopes.
      • B. nuclei.
      • C. ions.
      • D. helium.
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 63.
    • 11. Careful investigations can answer meaningful questions. Which of the following is an example of an investigation?
      • A. reading about protons in a textbook
      • B. testing the atomic theory with an experiment
      • C. writing and outline of a chapter
      • D. drawing a diagram of an atom
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 64.
    • 11. Careful investigations can answer meaningful questions. Which of the following is an example of an investigation?
      • A. reading about protons in a textbook
      • B. testing the atomic theory with an experiment
      • C. writing and outline of a chapter
      • D. drawing a diagram of an atom
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 65.
    • 12. Appropriate tools are needed to determine data in an experiment. Which tool would a scientist use to observe atoms?
      • A. an electron-cloud model
      • B. a scientific calculator
      • C. an electron microscope
      • D. a cathode-ray tube
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 66.
    • 12. Appropriate tools are needed to determine data in an experiment. Which tool would a scientist use to observe atoms?
      • A. an electron-cloud model
      • B. a scientific calculator
      • C. an electron microscope
      • D. a cathode-ray tube
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 67.
    • 13. Appropriate research materials need to be used to collect evidence. Which source would be best for finding information on naming isotopes?
      • A. a newspaper article about the discovery of atoms
      • B. a science Web site written by a seventh-grade student
      • C. a movie about a fictional scientist who splits atoms
      • D. a book about determining the mass of atoms
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 68.
    • 13. Appropriate research materials need to be used to collect evidence. Which source would be best for finding information on naming isotopes?
      • A. a newspaper article about the discovery of atoms
      • B. a science Web site written by a seventh-grade student
      • C. a movie about a fictional scientist who splits atoms
      • D. a book about determining the mass of atoms
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 69.
    • 14. Elements are
      • A. the substances that make up all matter.
      • B. ions that have been positively charged.
      • C. the combination of particles in a molecule.
      • D. the nuclei in isotopic atoms.
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 70.
    • 14. Elements are
      • A. the substances that make up all matter.
      • B. ions that have been positively charged.
      • C. the combination of particles in a molecule.
      • D. the nuclei in isotopic atoms.
    Chapter 6 Standards Assessment
  • 71. Chapter 6