Earth Science: Identify minerals

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Notes from 10/14/10

Notes from 10/14/10

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  • 1. Minerals
  • 2. What is a mineral?
    • A mineral is a natural solid that was never living.
    • Minerals are NOT rocks.
    • Minerals are formed by pressure, temperature, and time.
  • 3. How can we identify minerals?
  • 4. How can we identify minerals?
    • From their properties:
    • Color
    • Streak
    • Luster
    • Cleavage or Fracture
    • Hardness
  • 5. Color
    • Many minerals come in different colors, or can even change color.
    • Different colors of quartz
  • 6. Streak
    • When a mineral is rubbed against something hard, a powder is left.
    • A minerals streak will always have the same color.
  • 7. Streak
  • 8. Luster
    • Minerals can reflect light.
    • They way light reflects is called luster.
    • Many shine like metal, metallic luster
    • Some minerals have a nonmetallic luster.
  • 9. Cleavage
    • Minerals break in different ways.
    • A mineral that splits along a smooth, flat surface has cleavage.
    Cubic (halite) Flat Sheets ( mica )
  • 10. Fracture
    • Some minerals do not break along a flat surface.
    • Fractured minerals look like rough clumps or curved pieces.
    Curved (olivine) (quartz)
  • 11. Hardness
    • Minerals have different hardness's.
    • Minerals are measured from 1 to 10 on Mohs’ hardness scale.