The Basics Forklift 101 Final


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The Basics Forklift 101 Final

  1. 1. The Basics - Forklift 101
  2. 2. In Its Simplest Form, a Forklift… • Drives / Travels • Lifts / Other Hydraulic Functions • Utilizes Basic Hydraulics to Accomplish Work
  3. 3. Basic Hydraulics • Liquids cannot be compressed • Liquids can assume any shape and be bi-directional in free flow movement • Pascal’s Law states that when a confined liquid is placed under pressure, that pressure is transmitted, without change in intensity equally in all directions
  4. 4. Basic Diagrams
  5. 5. Multiplied Forces Do More Work • Principles of basic hydraulics allow forklifts to lift heavy loads
  6. 6. Pressure / Flow Must Be Created • Hydraulic pump – Usually gear type are utilized to create flow
  7. 7. Basic Hydraulic Diagram • Various Components Work Together to Accomplish the Work
  8. 8. Forklift Hydraulic Components • Hydraulic Reservoir (Tank) • Gear Pump ( Creates Flow / Pressure) • Control Valves (To Direst Flow) • Control Valve Levers (Direct Manual) – Electronically Controlled (Joystick, Fingertip controls) • Connectors – Steel tubing / hosing / fittings • Cylinders (To Do the Work!!) Single Acting / Double Acting – Lift cylinders – Tilt cylinders – Steer cylinders – Sideshift cylinders
  9. 9. Various Power Sources Engine Powered Forklifts Fuel Advantages Disadvantages Gasoline Readily available, good power & performance, Emissions, should not be used can run continuously, small & medium indoors, volatile costs, storage and forklifts, high power to weight ratio, starts well refueling regulations in cold LPG Readily available, easy refueling & tank Tank change-outs might be difficult storage, small & medium forklifts, cleaner for some, volatile costs burning, good power & performance, can be used indoors, can run continuously, usually costs less than gas Diesel More durable engine designs, medium, large More pollutants, cannot be used and extra large forklifts, sometimes better indoors, volatile costs, storage and performance & power than gas and LPG, can refueling regulations, might not start run continuously well in cold environment Dual Fuel An engine that runs on either gas or LPG, Possibly more maintenance, volatile better flexibility and good for rental fleet costs, possible refueling issues trucks, can run continuously
  10. 10. Various Power Sources Battery Powered Forklifts Fuel Advantages Disadvantages Lead Acid Readily available, various sizes and Purchasing fuel upfront, higher initial Battery capacities, utilized as part of the cost, replacement usually necessary, counterweight, zero emissions & no disposal complications noise, lower maintenance costs Fuel Cell Old technology just making its way to Durability concerns, very high forklifts, water is by-product of process, acquisition costs & refueling station quick refueling for long running times, costs, not yet mainstream, not as zero emissions efficient as “hybrid” noted below Hybrid Emerging technology, Komatsu the Higher costs than normal lead acid world’s first electric hybrid utilizing battery, must recharge overnight at battery & capacitor for power, extended least weekly, battery replacement run times, zero emissions & noise, no necessary after 4 yrs., paying for fuel hefty investments needed upfront, possible disposal complications
  11. 11. Forklift Terminology Acronyms Etc. • Mast • IHR • OSHA • Nm • Upright • MPH • CARB • WB • MFH • FPM • EPA • RPM • OAHL • PSI • FPM • U.L. • FL • Ah • KOPS • NFPA • LBR • HP • kW • Towmotor • OHG • ITA • kN • QD • ANSI • dB
  12. 12. Lift Truck Main Components • Chassis • Counterweight • Mast
  13. 13. Counterbalanced Forklifts • 99.9% are front wheel drive and rear wheel steering • Why? – In a loaded condition all of the weight is over the drive axle for maximum traction and braking power!! • In a turning situation, the rear end of the truck swings while the front end stays stationary
  14. 14. Engine Powered Forklift Hydraulic pump
  15. 15. Battery Powered Forklift PS motor
  16. 16. Mast Specifications • OALH – Overall Lowered Height – The distance measured from the floor to the top of the mast when it is fully lowered and vertical – Critical for entering low clearance areas & doorways • MFH – Maximum Fork Height – Distance measured from the floor to the top of the forks in the full raised position – Critical to achieve the desired height to put-away a load • FL – Free Lift – Distance the forks can be raised without the overall lowered height of the mast increasing – Critical when working inside of a trailer or other low clearance areas • Ratio of OALH to MFH – Usually the same, but may vary based upon mast overlap / retention
  17. 17. Mast Types OAHL - overall height lowered FL - free lift MFH - maximum fork height OAHL FL
  18. 18. Mast Types 2 Stage Free View Mast • Large open visibility window • 2 Main Cylinder design – typically mounted behind rails. • Limited free-lift. 0 ~ 6”
  19. 19. Mast Types 2 Stage Full Free View • 3 cylinder design • 2 Main rear cylinders • 1 Center cylinder is for freelift • Full free-lift capability
  20. 20. Mast Types 3-Stage Full Free View • New EZ view (BX50) • 3 cylinder design • 2 Main cylinders • 1 Center cylinder for free-lift • Full free-lift capability 4-Stage Full Free View Available on some models
  21. 21. Carriage Types 4 Roller Carriage AX50 standard • Ok with forks or SS. & normal load widths • Option of 6 roller for all other attachments, long load centers or wide loads
  22. 22. Carriage Types 6 Roller Carriage AX optional BX standard CX standard
  23. 23. Carriage Types How do we classify carriages? Class II – 16” – Up to 5,500 lbs. Class III – 20” – 6,000 to 10,000 lbs. Class IV – 25” – 11,000 lbs. Plus
  24. 24. Carriage Types Increased roller span. Reduced roller load & roller surface pressure
  25. 25. Carriages What are the advantages of 6 roller? Lower Moment Lower surface pressure on load roller face and mast channel Higher Moment Force
  26. 26. Forks Hook type forks • Most common style • 3 typical sizes Dimensions Class II – 16” Class III – 20” Class IV – 25”
  27. 27. Forks Pin or Shaft Type Carriage •Generally used on larger applications and larger capacity trucks such as EX models
  28. 28. Forks
  29. 29. Forks Standard taper pallet fork - Typically a fork that has other than a full taper; commonly this is one-third of the fork blade length. Fork length should typically cover a minimum of 75% of the load length
  30. 30. Forks Fully polished & tapered Fully tapered bottom (from heel to tip) with a polished top surface
  31. 31. Other Fork Types Block fork Generally a narrow, almost square stock that will easily fit most concrete block. Lumber fork Typically thin, wide fork fully tapered and polished with a chisel tip IE: 1.5” x 10”. The increased width is necessary to maintain fork capacity. Gypsum or Sheetrock forks Generally common to the lumber fork with a rounded or bevel side edge and/or a padded vertical back to prevent product damage.
  32. 32. Forks Fork Extensions What is the rule of thumb on fork extensions vs standard fork length? 150% of the standard fork length. IE: 48” fork can support up to a 72” fork extension.
  33. 33. Stability
  34. 34. Stability of Forklifts • Forklifts can and will tip over if overloaded, or if they raise a full load higher than permitted • As a Sales Professional you should fully understand the static and dynamic principals of forklift trucks in order to recognize and assure safe operation
  35. 35. Stability of a Counterbalanced Forklift • The fulcrum point of a counterbalanced forklift is the center of the drive Load Counterweight axle Fulcrum is drive tire
  36. 36. Teeter Totter Principle • Forklifts work on the principle of a teeter totter. You have a pivot point (drive axle center) and counterweight (CW) at one end to offset the load weight (W). • Too much weight will cause it to tip over. (or) if you move the weight CW further out from the pivot or fulcrum point it will also cause tip over.
  37. 37. Counterweight Makes All The Difference
  38. 38. Load Capacity • The load capacity of the forklift truck is a measure to indicate the maximum weight load that can be handled as a “load” on the forks at a given “load center” with the mast held in a vertical position •The load capacity rating is expressed in pounds (or kilograms) at the load center in inches (or millimeters) The chart of the load capacity is referenced from the operator’s seat on the truck’s data plate FG 25T 5000 4400 3900 2800 2400 24 30 36 40 48
  39. 39. Load Center The load center is specified as the distance between the center of gravity of the load on the forks and the vertical front face of the forks.
  40. 40. Weight Distribution • Wheel loadings / weight distribution can be very important in applications where there are floor loading limitations – Elevators / multiple floor buildings / trailers • Empty forklifts have most of their weight in the rear of the truck when unloaded • A forklift undergoes the greatest change in weight distribution when a load is placed on the forks – As much as 90% of the weight is shifted to the drive axle when the truck is fully loaded
  41. 41. Example of Wheel Loading of FG20 Front Rear Front Rear 3,740 lbs 3,300 lbs. 10,340 lbs. 1,100 lbs. Total weight = 7,040 lbs. Total weight = 11,440 lbs. 3,740 3,300 10,340 1,100 Unloaded (Empty) Loaded
  42. 42. Load CG The horizontal distance between the face of the forks and the center of gravity of the load it is carrying is called the load center
  43. 43. Be Cautious of Long Load Centers! • Long load centers have a very detrimental effect on the forklift – It transfers more weight off of the rear axle causing truck instability and possibly a tipover!! • It is like placing an overload at the normal load center of the forks!! • Consult the factory for capacity ratings at extended load centers • Anything greater than a 24” load center will reduce truck capacity and have an effect on truck stability!!
  44. 44. Long Load Centers
  45. 45. Truck Center of Gravity HCG = Horizontal Center of Gravity The Center of Gravity of a forklift changes as the mast is tilted or raised. This is important since all forklift capacities are based upon the location of the C of G. This also changes the wheel loading on drive and steer tires. The illustration show the effect on the C of G as the mast is tilted forward or backward.
  46. 46. Truck Vertical Center of Gravity The illustration shows the effect on the C of G as the mast is raised or lowered. As you can see as the load weight moves up or down the VCG (vertical center of gravity) also changes.
  47. 47. Combined Center of Gravity • An empty forklift has a center of gravity and the load has a weight and its own center of gravity • When the truck picks up the load, the center of gravity of the truck shifts forward • As longs as the combined center of gravity of the truck and the load is located between the front and rear axles, the truck will remain stable • If the combined center of gravity of the truck and load is beyond the centerline of the front axle, the truck will tip over
  48. 48. Combined Center of Gravity
  49. 49. Dynamic vs Static Stability • Static stability is measured when the forklift is standing still • Dynamic stability is the transfer and shifting of the CG due to dynamic forces such as: – Traveling / braking / turning / lifting / lowering
  50. 50. The Stability Triangle
  51. 51. The Stability Triangle • Stability is the result of many factors – Wheelbase / overall width at the front axle / weight distribution / lifting height • Stability refers to longitudinal and lateral stability, the stability triangle, and dynamic vs. static stability
  52. 52. The Stability Triangle • Point “A” = Center pivot point of the rear steer axle • Point “B” and “C” = Straight line between centerline of each drive axle
  53. 53. The Stability Triangle • When a load is placed on the forks, the center of gravity of the forklift moves forward • Ideally the CG must always stay within the stability triangle
  54. 54. The Stability Triangle • This diagram shows the effect of having the mast vertical and using a sideshifter • The load causes the CG to shift forward and sideshifting from side to sideshifts the CG to the right or left
  55. 55. The Stability Triangle • DANGER!! – Load is too heavy and too far out on the forks and the CG has shifted outside of the stability triangle!!
  56. 56. The Stability Triangle • Danger!! – The load is not stable and the heaviest part is out in front of the CG creating an unstable situation!!
  57. 57. The Stability Triangle • Danger!! – The load is not stable and the heaviest part to one side! When turning the momentum will shift further to the side creating a dangerous situation!! The truck could tip over laterally!!
  58. 58. Stability of Elevated Loads • Tilt table tests determine at what point the truck becomes unstable and downrates the truck accordingly to maintain stability with elevated loads
  59. 59. To Maintain Truck Stability • Always use caution when – Lifting – Tilting – Turning – Braking – Traveling with an elevated load – Traveling over uneven floor conditions • Always keep the CG within the stability triangle!!
  60. 60. Tilt Table Testing • The rated capacity and stability factors of a forklift are determined by tilt table tests with criteria established by the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) and ANSI/ITSDF B56.1 • The static center of gravity is definitely not the final determinant of forklift stability
  61. 61. Capacity Ratings and the Data Plate
  62. 62. Truck Model Tilt Angles Attachment Lift Height Vertical CG Capacity UL Type Data Plate Tire size Load center Serial Number Service Weight IC Attachment Attachment 2 Attachment 3 Service Weight Electric Battery Weight max. Battery Weight min. Battery capacity
  63. 63. Importance of the Data Plate • Every truck must have an accurate, legible data plate • Any approved modifications to the truck must be reflected on the data plate • Data plates show both English measurements and metric • No changes or modifications can be made to the truck without written approval from the manufacturer – Any change that effects truck stability attachment, longer forks, etc. – Critical to meet OSHA regulations – A truck without an accurate data plate can be removed from service
  64. 64. Capacity of a Forklift • Is determined by two factors – Weight of the load – Distance of the load’s center of gravity from the face of the forks • Almost all manufacturers of forklift trucks have standardized on rated capacities at 24” (600 mm) load centers for models up to about 30,000 lb capacity • The load center is the horizontal distance between the vertical front face of the forks and the center of gravity of the load • Therefore a 5,000 lb. capacity truck rated at a 24” load center can lift a load that weighs 5,000 lbs. that is 48” long provided the load weight is evenly distributed
  65. 65. Understanding Metrics Metric Standard 1500 kg @ 500 mm L.C. = 3,300 lbs @ 19.7 in L.C. US Standard 3,000 lb @ 24 in L.C. = 1,360 kg @ 610 mm L.C.
  66. 66. Inch-pound Ratings A typical load capacity chart shows a forklift truck’s capacities at many load centers. These ratings take into account all dynamic and static stability factors. FG 25T 5000 4400 3900 2800 2400 24 30 36 40 48
  67. 67. Lift Truck Performance & Specifications
  68. 68. Key Measurements • Discriminating buyers look closely at truck specs to compare competitors • How do we “measure-up” vs. the competition? • Key specifications: – Overall width / Overall length / Overall height / Head length / Under clearance / Wheelbase / Outside turning radius / Right angle stacking width / Travel speed / Lift speed / Lower speed • Key individual specifications represent the forklift’s work capability and suitability for your customer’s application
  69. 69. Truck Dimensions
  70. 70. Truck Width • Truck width is a critical measurement because it effects the truck’s ability to work in specific areas such as: Go through doorways / Work in drive-thru / drive-in racking / bulk stack If the truck is wider than the load, bulk stacking more than one pallet deep could be a problem The wider the truck, the greater the turning radius will be
  71. 71. Overall Height • Overall height is critical for working inside of trailers, box cars, and containers • Overall height is also critical for getting through facility doorways • Highest point could be OHG or mast – OHG height is usually fixed, mast could be variable
  72. 72. Wheelbase • The wheelbase does not relate directly to maneuvering dimensions (except grade under clearance), but it does affect truck behavior • A long wheelbase requires a greater angle of wheel steering and results in less efficient steering operation • The shorter the wheelbase the easier to steer
  73. 73. Length to Face of Forks • This dimension is important when figuring right angle stacking and dimensions for a working stacking aisle
  74. 74. Turning Radius • The turning radius is the radius of the smallest possible circle in which the forklift truck can turn • Turning radius is effected by overall truck width and steer angle
  75. 75. Under Clearances • The under clearances of the truck frame, mast, drive, and steering axles can be significant if there are surface irregularities or obstacles. • Not all under clearances are indicated on specification sheets. The mast clearance is generally the lowest point and, therefore, most often listed. • In backing up over bumps or obstacles, the rear (steer) axle clearance is important. Pneumatic- tire trucks have higher under clearances because they are intended for poor surface conditions
  76. 76. Grade Angle Clearance • The operator must know the truck’s grade angle capability for operating on ramps or over dock boards and dock plates • The incline (in terms of percent) on which the center of the frame under clearance will just touch when the truck is going down from the level to the ramp or when the truck is going down from the level to the ramp or when the truck is going up from the ramp to the level is important • And the so called departure angle (from the wheel arc to the truck edge) of the counterweight is also essential. But, in most sales literature, gradeability is substituted for the grade angle
  77. 77. Grades and Gradeability How do we calculate grades and gradeability?? Note: Always drive backwards up a ramp
  78. 78. Gradeability How to Calculate A Grade Percent of Grade = vertical ramp rise / horizontal ramp length Calculating 0.20 = 20% Ramp Grade 20 4.0 4 ft 20 ft Conversion Percent to Degrees a Grade and Percent of Grade 25% Degree of Ramp Angle 14.03 Gradeability 20% 11.31 15% 8.53 14% 7.96 13% 7.40 12% 6.85 11% 6.28 10% 5.71 9% 5.15 8% 4.58 7% 4.00 6% 3.43 5% 2.86 4% 2.30 3% 1.71 2% 1.15 1% 0.56
  79. 79. Operator Restraints • Operator restraint systems are designed to keep an operator within the confines of the operator compartment in the event of a truck tip-over • Systems include: – Seat belts / Seats with hip or shoulder restraints / Hood latches / Battery restraints / Decals / Operator manual instructions
  80. 80. Industry Organizations
  81. 81. Industry Organizations ANSI B56.1 > American National Standards Institute ASME B56.1 2000 > The American Society of Mechanical Engineers ANSI/ITSDF B56.1 > Industrial Truck Standards Development Foundation • B56.1 is specifically for Powered and Non Powered Industrial Trucks • Develops Safety codes related to Powered Industrial Trucks – For Manufacturers – For End Users
  82. 82. Industry Organizations OSHA > Occupational Safety & Health Administration • Governmental Based OSHA's mission is to prevent work-related injuries, illnesses and deaths. Since the agency was created in 1971, occupational deaths have been cut in half and injuries have declined by 40 percent.
  83. 83. Your Responsibilities… • As a material handling professional you are obligated to point out any usage of our equipment that does not comply with OSHA to the company’s contact person… is everyone’s responsibility • Offer your dealership’s services to provide required operator training
  84. 84. Your Customers Must Properly Train Their Operators • Required by OSHA • Promotes safe working environment • A well trained operator – Is far more efficient and productive – Puts safety first!!
  85. 85. Operator Training • OSHA Regulation:29 CFR 1910.178 • Regulation essentials – Training (Classroom & Hand-On) – Evaluation – Certification • Regulation topics – Fundamentals – Forklift specific – Workplace specific
  86. 86. Operator Training Is the Law! • The employer must: – Train – Evaluate – Certify – Must re-train when: • There is an accident • Near miss • Observed unsafe behavior – Operators must be re-certified every three years – No exemption for temporary workers
  87. 87. Industry Organizations ITA > Industrial Truck Association • Comprised of Manufacturers & Associate Manufactures • Board, Statistical, Engineering & Product Liability groups • Develops common standards as guidelines • Reviews legislation that impacts group members • Gathers Statistical Data.
  88. 88. Classifications of Forklift Trucks in the U.S. Market Class I Used for trailer loading/unloading, indoors 3-Wheel, 4-Wheel Sit- in plants & warehouses down Riders, Stand-Up where good Counterbalance Riders maneueverability is needed Class II Used in warehousing & distribution for high level Narrow Aisle Reach storage and high level Trucks, Order Selectors, orderpicking in narrow Turret Trucks aisles Class IIIWalkie & Walkie trucks are utilized in a wide variety of Walkie/Rider & Center manufacturing & Control Pallet Trucks,Tow warehousing applications Tractors, Walkie Stackers
  89. 89. Classifications of Forklift Trucks in the U.S. Market (cont.) Class IV Indoor use on loading docks in plants & warehouses Engine Powered, where power & continuous Cushion Tire, Sit-down usage are expected & good Rider Forklifts maneuverability is important Class V Outdoor use for load handling in retail, lumber, Engine Powered, shipping & stevedoring Pneumatic Tire, Sit-down where power and Rider Forklifts continuous usage is expected
  90. 90. Industry Organizations UL > Underwriters Laboratory Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) is an independent, not- for-profit product safety testing and certification organization. Each year, more than 17 billion UL Marks are applied to products worldwide. Generally electrical and fuel related validation.. Trucks must be manufactured in compliance with U.L. U.L. 558 applies to internal combustion engine forklifts U.L. 583 applies to battery powered electric forklifts
  91. 91. Industry Organizations NFPA > National Fire Prevention Agency NFPA 505 – 2006 • NFPA distinguishes forklift types in accordance with their suitability for use in special environments which present the risk of fire or explosions • NFPA regulations cover designations, areas of use, maintenance and operation • Electric Forklift Classifications: – Type “E” / Type “ES” / Type “EE” / Type “EX” • Engine Forklift Classifications: – Type “G” / Type “GS” / Type “LP” / Type “LPS” / Type “D” / Type “DS” / Type “G/LP” / Type “GS/LPS” / Type “DX” Diesel explosion proof
  92. 92. Industry Organizations NFPA > National Fire Prevention Agency NFPA 505 – 2006 • NFPA states that hazardous work areas must be properly marked showing the type of truck classification that must be used in that special area • It is the customer’s responsibility to communicate these special application needs and need to operate the forklift within a hazardous area
  93. 93. Industry Organizations MHEDA >Material Handling Equipment Distributors Assoc. • Dealer based Organization • The Material Handling Equipment Distributors Association is the only trade association dedicated solely to improving the proficiency of the independent material handling equipment distributor. • MHEDA is your direct connection to the Material Handling Industry's hottest trends, newest products and best management training workshops. MHEDA represents a wealth of resources for all material handling businesses.