Hyperglycemia means high blood sugar or glucose.
Insulin is a hormone that moves glucose into cells to
give them energy.
Hyperglycemia happens when body doesn't make
enough insulin or can't use it the right way.
Blood glucose levels can vary from day to day.
occasional high level (above 10mmol/L) is not a
problem, as long as it returns to normal (below 8mmol/L)
within 12-24 hours.
Persistently high blood glucose levels (above
15mmol/L) for more than 12-24 hours can result in the
symptoms of hyperglycemia.
remove glucose from the blood in response to
pancreas doesn't make enough insulin, glucose can't
enter the cells and remains in the blood.
glucose levels can also get too high if cells are
unable to respond to insulin properly (insulin resistance).
Types of hyperglycemia
Complicated hyperglycemia is life-threatening .
Two type of hyperglycemia
1. diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
2. hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS)
DKA- is a problem that occurs in people with diabetes.
It occurs when the body cannot use sugar (glucose) as a fuel
source because there is no insulin or not enough insulin.
Fat is used for fuel instead.
Byproducts of fat breakdown, called ketones, build up in the
HHS- hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome is a
1. Extremely high blood sugar (glucose) levels
2. Extreme lack of water dehydration
Hyperosmolarity is a condition in which the blood has a
high concentration of salt (sodium), glucose, and other
substances that normally cause water to move into the
This draws the water out of the body's other
organs, including the brain. Sometimes it can cause coma.
CAUSES OF HYPERGLYCAEMIA
Blood glucose levels
Medications that cause hyperglycaemia
Blood glucose levels
The amount of glucose in your blood is controlled by
a hormone called insulin, which is produced by
Insulin takes glucose out of blood and moves it into
cells, where it is broken down to produce energy.
Glucagon is a different peptide hormone secreted by
the pancreatic cells.
Its secretion is stimulated by low blood glucose
levels, and its general effect is to oppose the action of
Glycogenesis and glycogenolysis are controlled by
The three regulatory enzyems of glycolysis HK , PFK.
PK. Are also regulate by these hormones.
These pathways play an important role in blood glucose
In people with diabetes the body is unable to break
glucose down into energy.
This is because there is either not enough insulin to
move the glucose, or because the insulin that is there does
not work properly.
The glucose remains in the blood, causing a high blood
In diabetes type 1 hyperglycemia is usually caused by
low insulin levels .
In type 2 hyperglycemia caused by resistance to insulin
at the cellular level depending on the type and state of the
Low insulin levels or insulin resistance prevent the
body from converting glucose into glycogen which can
cause excess glucose level in blood.
Medications that cause hyperglycaemia
Sometimes, hyperglycaemia and diabetes can occur as a
side effect of taking some medicines.
Olanzapine and risperidone are medications that are
sometimes used to treat mental health conditions, such
as schizophrenia (a condition that can cause hallucinations
Certain medications increase the risk of
hyperglycemia, including corticosteroids, octreotide, bet
blockers, epinephrine, thiazide diuretics, niacin,
pentamidine, protease inhibitors, L-asparaginase, and
some antipsychotic agents.
Gestational diabetes is when a woman develops diabetes
This may occur if your body is unable to produce
enough extra insulin to meet the demands of pregnancy.
This leads to an increased level of glucose in the blood.
A high proportion of patients suffering an acute stress
such as stroke or myocardial infarction may develop
stress' hormones such as epinephrine.
several of the steroids, infections, trauma.
Dysfunction of the thyroid, adrenal, and pituitary
Numerous diseases of the pancreas
a change of medication
a wrong (or missed dose) of insulin
changing your diet, or eating too much
not exercising regularly
an illness, such as a cold
Family history of diabetes
BLOOD SUGAR REGULATION
is important that the concentration of glucose in the
blood is maintained at a constant level.
Insulin and glucagon, are hormone produced by the
pancreas that regulates glucose levels in the blood.
Role of insulin in Blood Glucose Control
Effect on pancreas
Effect on liver
Effect on glucose
insulin secreted into
liver converts glucose
insulin not secreted
into the blood
liver does not convert
glucose into glycogen
What are the risks of hyperglycemia
Without treatment, high blood sugar levels can lead to severe
May get a blood clot in your leg or arm. The clot may travel to your
heart or brain and cause life-threatening problems, such as a heart attack
may cause pancreatitis.
Hyperglycemia can also lead to diabetes.
Hyperglycemia can damage nerves, veins, arteries, and
organs over time.
Damage to arteries may increase risk for a heart attack
Hyperglycemia can be a serious problem if not treated in
time. In untreated hyperglycemia, a condition
called ketoacidosis (contrast ketosis) could occur.
Without insulin, the body isn't able to utilize the
glucose for fuel, so the body starts to break down fats for
Ketoacidosis is a life-threatening condition which needs
^ What are mg/dl and mmol/l? How to convert?
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