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Social Marketing

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training on Social Marketing for NGOs

training on Social Marketing for NGOs

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  • 1. Wave “B”, Damascus, 27-29/1/2014 By Muhamad SHABAREK Syrian NGO Development Programme, a project by: SEBC ‫الموضوع‬ TOPIC Social Marketing ‫التسويق االجتماعي‬
  • 2. ‫برنامج تطوير المؤسسات غير الحكومية السورية‬ ‫مشروع* ممول من مرفق البيئة العالمية برنامج المنح الصغيرة (‪ )GEF SGP‬بالشراكة مع مركز األعمال‬ ‫والمؤسسات السوري ‪ .SEBC‬يهدف إلى تطوير قدرات المؤسسات غير الحكومية والجمعيات وهيئات المجتمع‬ ‫األهلي للمساهمة في مواجهة التحديات البيئية بالتعاون مع الشركاء المحليين واإلقليمين.‬ ‫ً على دراسة تمت‬ ‫يتضمن البرنامج ورشات تدريبية موجهة للكوادر اإلدارية في هذه المؤسسات، تم تصميمها بناء‬ ‫للواقع الحالي بهدف التعرف على االحتياجات العملية والتدريبية لهذه المؤسسات. يطلب في نهاية كل ورشة تنفيذ‬ ‫تمرين عملي محدد لتطبيق ما تم تعلمه خالل كل ورشة بهدف التأكد من وصول المعلومة بالشكل الصحيح، ويتم‬ ‫تجميع هذه التمارين عند نهاية ورشات العمل في عرض نهائي متكامل يتم تقديمه من قبل أحد متدربي كل جمعية‬ ‫يهدف إلى تقييم فعلي كامل للجهة المشاركة ووضع حلول واقتراحات لتطويرها.‬ ‫•‬ ‫البرنامج ال يحمل أي طابع سياسي أو انساني وال يدخل ضمن برامج اإلغاثة الموجهة إلى سورية ضمن األزمة الحالية.‬ ‫‪Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs‬‬ ‫2‬
  • 3. Who’s in the room? 3 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 4. Expectations? 4 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 5. Training Programme Day 1 • Definitions • What is social marketing • Main principles • Marketing Mix Day 2 • Theories • Social Marketing strategy (Planning) • CSR • Public Relations Day 3 5 • Branding and Visual Identity • Social Media • Additional Marketing tools Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 6. Social Marketing Definitions
  • 7. 7
  • 8. Definitions • “Social Marketing is the design, implantation, and control of programs calculated to influence the acceptability of social ideas involving considerations of product planning, pricing, communication, distribution and marketing research” Kotler and Zaltman, 1971 Social marketing has two parent science Social and psychological sciences and Marketing sciences 8
  • 9. What is Social Marketing? The NSMC defines social marketing as: “an approach used to develop activities aimed at changing or maintaining people’s behaviour for the benefit of individuals and society as a whole.” Social marketing focuses on behaviour. If your goal is only to increase awareness or knowledge, or change attitudes, you are not doing social marketing. Social marketing starts by identifying all of the behaviours which are relevant to your issue – including those which you would like to encourage, and those which are causing the problem. It also looks at related or similar problematic behaviours. Social marketing focuses on behaviour. If your goal is only to increase awareness or knowledge, or change attitudes, you are not doing social marketing. Social marketing starts by identifying all of the behaviours which are relevant to your issue – including those which you would like to encourage, and those which are causing the problem. It also looks at related or similar problematic behaviours. 9
  • 10. Social marking is about: 1. Adoption of ideas or behaviours 2. For social good 3. Population of individual level behavior change 4. The adoption of commercial marketing techniques 5. The exchange principle 6. Voluntary behavior change 10
  • 11. Social Marketing IS NOT • Social Networking/Media • Societal marketing/ CSR • Advocacy • Not-for-profit marketing • Cause-related marketing • Advertising and communication • A quick fix • Health promotion/education 11
  • 12. But Social Marketing is • A staged planning approach • A tool to help achieve behaviour change • Proven to work • Customer-centric • A strategic as well as an operational tool • Measurable – return on investment can be demonstrated 12
  • 13. Social Marketing vs Commercial Marketing Commercial marketing Social Marketing Product The marketing process revolves primarily around the development and sale of goods and services The marketing process is used to change or maintain behaviour Primary aim Financial gain Individual or societal gain Primary competition Other organisations offering similar goods or services The current or preferred behaviour of the target segment 13 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 14. How Social Marketing Helps Policy: it helps to ensure policy is based on an understanding of people’s lives, making policy goals realistic and achievable. Strategy: it enables you to target your resources costeffectively, and select interventions that have the best impact over time. Implementation and delivery: it enables you to develop products, services and communications that fit people’s needs and motivations. 14 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 15. Social Marketing principles • Clear behavioural goals • Customer orientation • Theory • Insight • Exchange • Segmentation • Competition • The 4 “P”s and extended “P”s The 8 social marketing benchmark criteria by NSMC 15
  • 16. ‫حملة استبدال أغطية‬ ‫العبوات البالستيكية‬ ‫بكرسي لذوي‬ ‫االحتياجات الخاصة‬ ‫‪Practical exercise‬‬
  • 17. The customer triangle 17
  • 18. BEHAVIOUR • Change people’s actual behaviour • Influence specific behaviours, not just knowledge, attitudes and beliefs • Set clear, specific, measurable and time-bound behavioural goals, and establish baselines and key indicators 18
  • 19. Understanding behaviour – some basic starting points Behaviour is a pattern of actions over time; the action or reaction of something under specific circumstances. It is inherently dynamic – that is, subject to change and variation in different contexts and at different times. It is rare to find behaviour demonstrated consistently across a whole group of people. Much routine daily behaviour is about habit and does not necessarily involve conscious and active considerations. Starting from an under standing of an audience’s attitudes, hopes, wishes, desires and other motivations is generally more productive than trying to identify and fill information gaps. Understanding people’s emotional engagement is critical. 19
  • 20. The customer in their wider social and environmental context • Good social marketing does not focus on people as isolated individuals, but considers them in their wider social and environmental context. • Their behaviour will be affected by a range of factors. • Effective social marketing considers: 1. Factors within the individual’s control; e.g. lifestyle options and choices 2. Factors outside the individual’s control; e.g. environment, service access options, employment opportunities and housing 20
  • 21. 21
  • 22. Customer Orientation • Focus on the audience. Fully understand their lives, attitudes and current behaviour using a mix of data sources and research methods • Go beyond interviews and focus groups • Use a range of research analyses and combine data from different sources (qualitative and quantitative) • Gain key stakeholder understanding and feed it into methods mix development • Pre-test interventions with the audience • Involve people – don’t treat them as research subjects 22 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 23. ++ XX - Interest yy ++ Very positive + Positive X Neutral - Negative -- Very negative x ZZZ Influence 23 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs Circle size represents the size of the group
  • 24. The Principle of EXCHANGE • People change their behavior because they are offered something in exchange perceive to provide greater benefits and fewer barriers than the alternative. • This principle can be contrasted with two complementary principles: • The regulation principle: people do things to avoid punishment • The education principle: people do thing because they acquire information and skills that they did not previously have 24
  • 25. STOP SMOKING Individual: I’m perceived as Intelligent person Community: lower costs of health care If you drink and drive I’ll arrest you! Take this pill with food or it will not be absorbed 25
  • 26. 26
  • 27. The Principle of SEGMENTATION How do you think these women are alike? How might they be different? 27 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 28. Segmentation The process of dividing a market into distinct subsets of customers that behave in the same way or have similar needs. There is NO SUCH THING as ‘targeting the general public’! 28 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 29. • Avoid a ‘one size fits all’ approach: identify audience ‘segments’, which have common characteristics, and tailor interventions appropriately • Segmentation is made possible by the customer orientation and insight work • Don’t only rely on traditional demographic, geographic or epidemiological targeting • Draw on behavioural and psychographic data • Identify the size of your segments • Prioritise and select segments according to clear criteria, such as size and readiness to change • Directly tailor interventions in the methods mix to specific audience segments 29 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 30. Common variables • Demographic: Age Gender Family size Income Occupation Education Religion Race Generation Nationality • Behavioural: Occasions – regular, social Benefits – quality, service, convenience User status – non-user, ex-user, potential Usage rate Loyalty status Readiness stage Attitude towards product • Geographic: Country or region Postcode City/inhabitants size Density – urban/rural Climate • Psychographic: Attitudes Motivations Personality Values/beliefs Social class Lifestyle 30 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 31. Cost-effective segmentation (TARPARE method) 31 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 32. Persona • Personas are fictional characters created to represent the different user types within a targeted demographic, attitude and/or behavior set that might use a site, brand or product in a similar way. Marketers may use personas together with market segmentation, where the qualitative personas are constructed to be representative of specific segments. • They are captured in 1–2 page descriptions that include behavior patterns, goals, skills, attitudes, and environment, with a few fictional personal details to make the persona a realistic character. 32 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 33. 33 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 34. The Principle of 4Ps • The 4Ps are the basic structural elements which the social marketer manipulates to produce a competitive benefit for a particular audience segment. • The role of marketer is to imbalance the mix (especially when to compensate weak or missing Ps) Promotion Product “It is important to concentrate on blending all Elements of the mix rather than just one” 34 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs Place Price
  • 35. PRODUCT • This includes all products and services to help the target audience achieve the behaviour change. • It could mean putting recycling bins into a block of flats, or developing a new service to help people quit smoking. • Adapting existing products to meet changing consumer trends. Instead of creating a new product, look to develop your existing products to meet the different segment needs. • Commercial companies do this frequently, by expanding their product range: Coca-Cola (the original) > Coke Zero (developed to appeal to men conscious of their weight) > Diet Coke (developed to appeal to people conscious of their weight (mainly women)) > Caffeine-free Coke > Cherry Coke > Other special editions – such as coke with lemon 35 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 36. E.g. A social marketing project to get more children eating healthy school meals developed their existing product • Menus were redeveloped to be healthier and more appealing • The canteen was refurbished to look more like a high street fast food outlet • A reward scheme was introduced to incentivize healthy options • A ‘fast track’ queue was introduced for those buying healthy options 36 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 37. 37 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 38. PRICE • The price is the cost that the target audience associates with adopting the new behaviour. • It should be integrated with the benchmark: exchange. Costs may be monetary or non-monetary, such as: • Time – ‘I have to find the time to recycle my old fridge’ • Physical cost e.g. effort – ‘I have to carry it to the recycling point’ • Psychological costs e.g. fear – ‘I’m afraid of the youths who hang around near the recycling point’ 38 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 39. “Price” Strategies • Increase monetary incentives of desired behaviour • Decrease monetary costs of desired behavior • Increase non-monetary benefits of desired behavior • Decrease non-monetary costs of desired behavior • Increase monetary costs of competing behavior • Increase non-monetary costs of competing behavior 39 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 40. PLACE • Place is where and when the target audience will perform the desired behaviour, acquire any related tangible objects, and receive any associated services. • We live in an environment where time is in short supply and a valuable commodity – so convenience is often a key element of success. E.g. To encourage men at risk of high blood pressure to get checked, screening was made available at community events and supermarket car parks. This was because: • They tended to frequent these places in the evenings or at weekends • They tended to have time available at these places • They were often at these places with their families, who were likely to prompt them to get their blood pressure checked 40 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 41. “Place” Strategies • Make the location closer • Extend opening hours • Be there at the point of decision making • Make the location more appealing • Overcome psychological barriers • Be more accessible than the competition • Make access to the competition more difficult • Work with existing distribution channels 41 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 42. PROMOTION • Promotion is the final component of the marketing mix. It is used to communicate the product benefits, its value in relation to the competitors and the place where it is available. • It should not just communicate a message, such as ‘smoking kills’; or ‘don’t drink and drive’. E.g. A stop smoking project for pregnant women did not use promotion to say, ‘smoking harms your baby’. Instead, they promoted an offer to mums: ‘You don’t have to give up your ‘me time’ to give up smoking’. This articulated a benefit of the intervention – it offered mums ‘me time’ via a new support group. 42 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 43. Promotional mix (tools) 43 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 44. The other Ps Process People Physical evidance 44 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 45. The principle of COMPETITION • Old Behavior • Benefits • Barriers 45 New behavior must compete by offering something equally or more valuable to the audience Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 46. What we do? • Understand what competes for the audience’s time, attention, and inclination to behave in a particular way • Address direct and external factors that compete for the audience’s time and attention • Develop strategies to minimise the impact of competition, clearly linked to the exchange offered • Form alliances with or learn from the competing factors 46
  • 47. INSIGHT • Customer orientation lets you identify ‘actionable insights’ – pieces of understanding that will lead intervention development • Gain a deep understanding of what moves and motivates the target audience and influences the behavior • Identify emotional barriers (such as fear of testing positive for a disease) as well as physical barriers (such as service opening hours) • Use insight to develop an attractive exchange and suitable methods mix 47 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 48. Insight definition • A deep ‘truth’ about the customer based on their behaviour, experiences, beliefs, needs or desires, that is relevant to the task or issue and ‘rings bells’ with target people. Insight is more than just pieces of data. It is what the data can tell us about people’s feelings, motivations and current behaviour 48
  • 49. 49
  • 50. Where does Insights come from? 50
  • 51. internal & external environment Analysis • SWOT Analysis or Pestle tool 51
  • 52. Theories • Use behavioural theories to understand behavior and inform the intervention • Identify theories after conducting customer orientation research • Use theory to inform and guide the methods mix • Test theoretical assumptions as part of the intervention pre-testing 52
  • 53. • Human behaviour is complex. However, by following a theory, you can gain a greater understanding of your target audience and the factors that influence them and their actions. • Theory helps you to see the broader picture. It provides a structure or ‘road map’ to guide your examination of the behaviours you are dealing with. • Theoretical assumptions should be tested as part of the developmental process. You should try to find the most appropriate theory based on what you know about your target audience’s behaviour, rather than apply one you are most familiar with. Select a theory after you have gathered information about your audience and the behaviour as part of your customer orientation work. 53
  • 54. There are a wide range of behavioural theories which have been used in social marketing projects: 54
  • 55. The classical Diffusion Theory Everett Rogers (1962) • Found that for most members of a social system, the adoption-decision depends heavily on the adoptiondecisions of the other members of the system. • The more people adopt an innovation, the lower the perceived risk. • The result is an S-curve shaped pattern of innovation diffusion. • Synthesized research on adoption of innovation from several fields: Anthropology, Early sociology, Rural sociology, Education, Industrial sociology, Medical sociology
  • 56. The Technology Adoption Lifecycle • The Diffusion of Innovations is a social process Source: Carnegie Mellon University * Reused from Geoffrey Moore, Dealing with Darwin © 2005, TCG Advisors LLC
  • 57. The Technology Adoption Lifecycle • The Diffusion of Innovations is a social process Source: Carnegie Mellon University * Reused from Geoffrey Moore, Dealing with Darwin © 2005, TCG Advisors LLC
  • 58. The Technology Adoption Lifecycle • The Diffusion of Innovations is a social process Source: Carnegie Mellon University * Reused from Geoffrey Moore, Dealing with Darwin © 2005, TCG Advisors LLC
  • 59. The Technology Adoption Lifecycle • The Diffusion of Innovations is a social process Source: Carnegie Mellon University * Reused from Geoffrey Moore, Dealing with Darwin © 2005, TCG Advisors LLC
  • 60. The Technology Adoption Lifecycle • The Diffusion of Innovations is a social process Source: Carnegie Mellon University * Reused from Geoffrey Moore, Dealing with Darwin © 2005, TCG Advisors LLC
  • 61. Adoption of new Products
  • 62. Crossing the Chasm (1991, revised 1999) A marketing book by Geoffrey A. Moore that focuses on the specifics of marketing high tech products during the early start up period. Moore's exploration and expansion of the diffusions of innovations model has had a significant and lasting impact on high tech entrepreneurship. In 2006, Tom Byers, Faculty Director of Stanford Technology Ventures Program, described it as "still the bible for entrepreneurial marketing 15 years later". The book's success has led to a series of follow-up books and a consulting company, The Chasm Group.
  • 63. The Adventure Trip
  • 64. Governing Model Pragmatists: Stick with the herd! Conservatives: Hold on! Visionaries: Get ahead of the herd! Skeptics: No way! Techies: Innovators Early Early Majority Late Majority Laggards
  • 65. Innovators –Technology Enthusiasts Primary Motivation: • Learn about new technologies for their own sake Key Characteristics: • Strong aptitude for technical information • Like to alpha test new products • Can ignore any missing elements • Do whatever they can to help Challenges: • Want unrestricted access to top technical people • Want no-profit pricing (preferably free) Key Role: Gatekeeper to the Early Adopter
  • 66. Early Adopters –The Visionaries Primary Motivation: • Gain dramatic competitive advantage via revolutionary breakthrough Key Characteristics: • Great imaginations for strategic applications • Attracted by high-risk, high-reward propositions • Will help supply the missing elements • Perceive order-of-magnitude gains –so not price sensitive Challenges: • Want rapid time-to-market • Demand high degree of customization and support Key Role: Fund the development of the early market
  • 67. Early Majority –Pragmatists Primary Motivation: • Gain sustainable productivity improvements via evolutionary change Key Characteristics: • Astute managers of mission-critical applications • Understand real-world issues and tradeoffs • Focus on proven applications • Like to go with the market leader Challenges: • Insist on good references from trusted colleagues • Want to see the solution in production at the reference site Key Role: Bulwark of the mainstream market
  • 68. Late Majority –Conservatives Primary Motivation: • Just stay even with the competition • Avoid competitive disadvantage Key Characteristics: • Better with people than technology • Risk averse • Price-sensitive • Highly reliant on a single, trusted advisor Challenges: • Need completely pre-assembled solutions • Would benefit from value-added services but do not want to pay for them Key Role: Extend product life cycles
  • 69. Laggards – Skeptics Primary Motivation: • Maintain status-quo Key Characteristics: • Good at debunking marketing hype • Disbelieve productivity-improvement arguments -Believe in the law of unintended consequences • Like taking a contrarian position • Seek to block purchases of new technology Challenges: • Not a customer • Can be formidable opposition to early adoption Key Role: Retard the development of high-tech markets
  • 70. Law of Diffusion of Innovations
  • 71. Crack 1 & 2
  • 72. Crack 1 Early Adopters do talk to Innovators. Still Crack 1 occurs. Problem: Innovators like cool technology products that cannot be readily translated into major new business benefits. Early Adopters want competitive advantage. • Esperanto • Desktop Video Conferencing Solution: The product must be made to enable a valuable strategic leap forward.
  • 73. Crack 2 Late Majority talks to Early Majority. Still Crack 2 occurs. Problem: The Early Majority is willing and able to become technically competent when needed. The Late Majority is not. • Scanners and Video Editing Programs • Telephone transferring systems Solution: Ensure very high user-friendlieness to ensure ease of adoption.
  • 74. Different value delivered It is new to the market • It is the fastest product • It is the easiest to use • It has elegant architecture • It has unigue functionality • It is the de facto standard • It has the largest installed base • It has most third party supporters • It has great quality of support • It has a low cost of ownership • Visionary Pragmatist
  • 75. Different Buying Behavior Willing to take risk • Rely on horizontal references: other industries & techies • Want to buy from new firms • Want rich techsupport • • Visionary Pragmatist Wants very little risk • Relies on vertical references within their industry • Wants to buy from market leaders • Wants one point of contact
  • 76. What Pragmatists think of Visionaries 1. The visionaries love technology but are bored with the mundane details of their own industry, which is the everyday work of us pragmatists. 2. The visionaries want to build systems from the ground up and do not appreciate the importance of networks, systems and processes already in place. 3. The visionaries seem to do all the fun things. They get all the funds and all the attention for their blue sky projects. If they fail, it is us pragmatists who have to clean up the mess. If they succeed, the disruptive change is just too much to handle. Pragmatists don’t trust visionaries as references!
  • 77. Catch 22 • “The pragmatists will use only those products that are already used by a majority of pragmatists. And generally look to one and other as references. So, how can we get them to use a new product?”
  • 78. Discovering that you are in the chasm Visionary markets saturates, or visionaries abandon • Too late for revolutionary competitive advantage • There are other cool disruptive things out there Pragmatists see no reason to buy yet • Too early for anything to be ”in production” • No herd of references has yet formed
  • 79. Crossing the chasm The problem • 80% of many solutions –100% of none • Pragmatists won’t buy 80% solutions! Conventional solution (tends to fail) • Committing to the most common enhancement requests • Never completely satisfying any one customer segment’s needs ”D-day” solution (more likely to succeed) • Focus all efforts on a single ”beach head” segment with a compelling reason to buy, develop a whole product, become a market leader • Then leverage product and user references to attack other segments The consequence of being sales-driven instead of strategy-driven in the chasm is fatal –Focus !!!
  • 80. ”D-day” invasion strategy & tactics 1. Target the point of attack Segmentation–isolate target customers and their compelling reason to buy 2. Assemble the invasion force Differentiation–develop the ”whole product” and choose allies to realize this 3. Define the battle Positioning–reate the competition(if there is none, you still need one) and position yourself 4. Launch the invasion Distribution and Pricing–select your distribution channel and set your price
  • 81. What is a Whole Product In marketing, a whole product is a generic product augmented by everything that is needed for the customer to have a compelling reason to buy. It's All About Risk In high tech, products are often more costly and complicated, so the customer has more at stake. Therefore market adoption of a technology product is dependent upon helping customers reduce perceived risk.
  • 82. Defining the Value Proposition Statement • For….(target customers, beachhead segment) • Who are dissatisfied with… (current market or internal alternative) • Our product is a … (new product category) • That provides… (key problem solving capacity) • Unlike… (current product alternative) • We have assembled… (key whole product features)
  • 83. What Comes after the beachhead? Bowling Alley
  • 84. Bowling Alley Market Development
  • 85. Beyond the Chasm I (Tornado) • As more niche markets are successfully penetrated, the solution is perceived to be less of a niche product and more of an all-purpose solution. This creates momentum around the technology, and the hyper growth phase of the Tornado begins. The Tornado is a period of hyper growth when the pragmatic buyers flock en masse to adopt the technology as the standard. The product focus has also shifted away from the problems of the end user and toward the infrastructure buyer that can implement the technology to solve their problems. Successful companies with technology in the Tornado "just ship" the product and focus less on the customer because this is a hyper growth phase where market share is determined and leadership is established. A leader is needed to create stability in the market, and the company that sets the standard for the technology will reap tremendous financial rewards. Companies create value in the Tornado phase by balancing product leadership and operational excellence, or the ability to successfully execute the business plan.
  • 86. Beyond the Chasm II (The main street) • Main Street represents a time when the purchasing fury has subsided and supply and demand is brought to equilibrium. Moore describes the entrance into Main Street as a "calamitous" experience. Revenue shortfall, loss of talented employees, and shareholder lawsuits due to a floundering stock price are not uncommon. However, if a corporation comes to terms with the fact that Main Street is an inevitable part of the life cycle, it can be quite profitable. To ensure success, corporate strategy must shift once again toward a combination of customer intimacy and operational excellence.
  • 87. Intervention Mix Inform Service Control 88 Educate Design Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 88. 89
  • 89. Social Marketing principles • Clear behavioural goals • Customer orientation • Theory • Insight • Exchange • Segmentation • Competition • The 4 “P”s and extended “P”s The 8 social marketing benchmark criteria by NSMC 90
  • 90. Six stage planning for Social Marketing Getting started 91 Scope Develop Implement Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs Evaluate Follow-up
  • 91. Getting Started Before you start your social marketing project, it is useful to do some initial planning. This will help you to find out whether you have the support to carry it through. There are four areas that you should think about at this stage: 1. The issue or challenge you want to address 2. The resources and assets you might be able to draw on 3. Potential risks 4. Initial timescales You may also want to think about how much original research into your target audience you will need to carry out and if you will need to commission external help to do it. If you do feel extra support will be needed. OUTPUT: A ‘challenge statement’, describing the issue you will address and clarifying who is affected. 92 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 92. Scope The scoping phase is where you consider which interventions to select, based on what is most likely to achieve and sustain the desired outcome, given your resources. Typically, scoping involves: • Bringing people together who might be important for the intervention • Forming a steering group and reviewing expectations and resources • Investigating what has already been done • Analysing factors that may affect the issue and what you can do about them • Getting the information you need to forge ahead by carrying out both secondary and primary research It is critical to develop a complete understanding of your audience and what motivates them to behave in the way they do, including the key influences, incentives and barriers. You may want to segment your audience, allowing you to prioritise and target the intervention. Behavioural goals need to be set and monitoring and evaluation methods must be decided. OUTPUT: A written scoping report, summarising your work to date and setting out the rationale for the interventions. 93 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 93. Develop This is where the interventions selected as a result of scoping are taken forward. By this point you should have a good understanding of your audience. You will have analysed their behaviours and set goals, engaged with key stakeholders and produced a scoping report. You are now in a position to develop a specific programme, campaign or intervention. It is crucial to pre-test ideas with the audience. Check that the evidence and assumptions are relevant and actionable, and adjust plans accordingly. Plan your methods mix, maintaining stakeholder engagement and, where appropriate, building a working relationship with external partners. OUTPUT: A social marketing plan with SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-bound) objectives. 94 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 94. Implement This is where your social marketing intervention goes live. What happens in this stage will differ for every intervention, but there are a number of tasks that you should try to undertake: • Preparing for the intervention launch • Spotting opportunities and dealing with problems during delivery • Monitoring and evaluating the process as it unfolds • Gathering feedback from staff and stakeholders involved in delivery • Monitoring the wider environment for any changes or developments that might affect the intervention Depending on the feedback from your stakeholders, you may be required to adjust the implementation plan. KEY CONCERN: Achieving the desired impact on the audience’s behaviour within the timescale you have identified. 95 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 95. Evaluate At this stage, you formally review the intervention’s impact. The aims of evaluation are to identify the strengths and weaknesses, determine if it is making a difference, and measure its return on investment.You will be required to gather detailed information about how the intervention has worked and what it has achieved. • You should gather the type of data that will allow you to measure success or failure against the original aims and objectives. Because it can take time until an intervention’s full effect on behaviour can be seen, try to identify interim changes that will allow you to check if you are moving in the right direction. • You should have planned how you are going to evaluate your intervention earlier in the process. This includes deciding on short, medium or long term indicators for measuring the change in people’s knowledge, attitude, and behaviour. As well as the outcomes, the actual process of the intervention should be assessed. OUTPUT: An evaluation report, setting out the original objectives, methods used, outcomes identified and recommendations for further action. 96 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 96. Follow-up The follow-up stage is when the results of the evaluation are considered by you and your stakeholders. Implications are digested and forward plans made. This helps to ensure that you, your organisation and stakeholders learn from the experience and the learning is captured for future work. It is also an important opportunity to recognise and thank those involved. Sharing evaluation findings enables future developments and interventions to build on your successes and failures. This increases the chance that successful interventions will enter mainstream practice. 97 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 97. Selling Vs Marketing discussion 98 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 98. ‫‪Selling your cause‬‬ ‫تمرين:ً(مطلوب متطوعين)‬ ‫صادفت في المصعد مدير أكبر‬ ‫سلسلة مطاعم في دمشق،‬ ‫والمطلوب منك خالل 03 ثانية‬ ‫(الوقت الالزم للوصول إلى‬ ‫الطابق 11 إقناعه بدعم الحملة)‬ ‫‪Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs‬‬ ‫99‬
  • 99. What is Public Relations (PR) • “Public relations is a planned process to influence public opinion, through sound character and proper performance, based on mutually satisfactory two-way communication.” Another definition from PRSA: • “Public relations helps an organization and its publics adapt mutually to each other. Public relations is an organization’s efforts to win the cooperation of groups of people.” 100 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 100. Public relations professionals serve as interpreters for the organization. 10-Second Quiz! Who is that lady in the blue dress, and why is she with President Bush? 101
  • 101. PR professionals serve as management interpreters To publics, they interpret management’s: • Philosophies • Policies • Programs • Practices 102
  • 102. And as public interpreters To management, PR interprets the public’s: • Opinions • Needs • Desires Management needs to know what the public thinks about the organization and its practices! 103
  • 103. Now it’s your turn…… Can you think of recent events in which organizations were not correctly interpreting public views? 104
  • 104. Marston’s four-step “RACE” model describes the PR process: • R = Research • A = Action • C = Communication • E = Evaluation 105
  • 105. Ways to view our publics • Internal or external • Primary or secondary • Traditional and future • Proponents, opponents, and the uncommitted 106
  • 106. Ways to view our publics…… Segmenting by values and lifestyles • Actualizers Strivers • Fulfilleds • Experiencers • Believers • Makers • Achievers 107 • • Strugglers
  • 107. Functions of Public Relations They are numerous: • • Consumer relations • Media relations • Employee relations • Planning • Government affairs • Counseling • Investor relations • Research • Special publics relations • Publicity • Public affairs and issues management • Marketing Communications • • 108 Writing Community relations Web site development and interface
  • 108. Sharpe’s five principles: • Honest communication for credibility • Openness and consistency for confidence • Fairness of actions for reciprocity, goodwill • 2-way communication to build relationships • Research and evaluation to determine actions and adjust for social harmony 109
  • 109. Becoming a PR practitioner Key personal characteristics: • A tendency toward communication • A desire to counsel senior managers • A strong base of personal ethics • A willingness to take risks • A positive outlook on life 110
  • 110. Relation with Press Discussion 111 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 111. Practices • Create your own Database • Build relations • Invite to activities and events • Use Press release (specific template, consider visual identity) • Follow-up • File, archive • Update your website • …
  • 112. Relations with Private Sector Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
  • 113. Main Concepts of CSR CSR (Carrol, 1979) Firms have responsibilities to societies including economic, legal, ethical and discretionary (or philanthropic). - See also DeGeorge (1999) on the “Myth of the Amoral Firm” Social Contract (Donaldson, 1982; Donaldson and Dunfee, 1999) – There is a tacit social contract between the firm and society; the contract bestows certain rights in exchange for certain responsibilities. Stakeholder Theory (Freeman, 1984) – A stakeholder is “any group or individual who can affect or is affected by the achievement of an organisation’s purpose.” Argues that it is in the company’s strategic interest to respect the interests of all its stakeholders.
  • 114. What is Corporate Social Responsibility? Corporate Social Responsibility The responsibility of business towards the society
  • 115. Myths surrounding CSR CSR is not for small businesses It is too complicated and technical It is too expensive It is a market gimmick It is a separate corporate initiative
  • 116. Winning new businesses Enhanced Relationship with stakeholders Increase in customer retention Saving money on energy and operating cost Benefits of CSR Differentiating yourself from the competitor Enhancing your influence in the industry Attracting, Retaining and Maintaining a happy workforce Media interest and good reputation Access to funding opportunities
  • 117. CSR Initiatives Employee focused initiative Society focused initiative Market focused initiative Result - Driven CSR = Benefits Environmentally focused initiative Product focused initiative
  • 118. Types of Corporate Social Marketing 1. Environmental Sustainability: Areas include recycling, waste management, water management, using renewable energy sources, utilizing reusable resources, creating 'greener' supply chains, using digital technology instead of hard copies, 2. Community Involvement: This can include raising money for local charities, supporting community volunteerism, sponsoring local events, employing people from a community, supporting a community's economic growth, engaging in fair trade practices, etc 3. Ethical Marketing Practices: Companies that ethically market to consumers are placing a higher value on their customers and respecting them as people who are ends in themselves. They do not try to manipulate or falsely advertise to potential consumers. This is important for companies that want to be viewed as ethical. 119 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 119. Relations with Private sector • What are the good practices? 120 Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs
  • 120. Corporate and Visual Identity
  • 121. Definition • Corporate Identity is the "persona" of a corporation which is designed to accord with and facilitate the attainment of business objectives. It is usually visibly manifested by way of branding
  • 122. Theory • Corporate Identity comes into being when there is a common ownership of an organizational philosophy that is manifest in a distinct corporate culture — the corporate personality. • Corporate Identity helps organizations to answer questions like “who are we?” and “where are we going?” Corporate identity also allows consumers to denote their sense of belonging
  • 123. Application • In general, this amounts to a corporate title and logo assembled within a set of guidelines. These guidelines govern how the identity is applied and confirm approved colour palettes, typefaces, page layout and other such methods of maintaining visual continuity and brand recognition
  • 124. Corporate Design Concept Corporate Communication Corporate Behaviour
  • 125. Differentiation: brands need to stand apart, make an impression and ultimately, be preferred Relevance: brands need to connect with what people care about. To build demand they must fulfil the needs and aspirations of their audience. Best Practices Coherence: To assure credibility brands must be coherent in what they say and do Esteem: Esteem is the reputation the brand has earned by executing clearly on both its promised and delivered experience
  • 126. Visual Identity • Logos are now the visual identifiers of corporations. They became components of corporate identities by communicating brands and unifying messages. The evolution of symbols went from a way for a king to seal a letter, to how businesses establish their credibility and sell everything from financial services to hamburgers • herefore, although the specific terms "corporate image" and "brand identity" didn’t enter business or design vocabulary until the 1940s, within twenty years they became key elements to business success
  • 127. Media and Corporate Identity • As technology and mass media have continued to develop at exponential rates, the role of the media in business increases as well. The media has a large effect on the formation of corporate identity by reinforcing a company's image and reputation. Global television networks and the rise of business news have caused the public representation of organizations to critically influence the construction and deconstruction of certain organizational identities more than ever before. • Many companies proactively choose to create media attention and use it as a tool for identity construction and strengthening, and also to reinvent their images under the pressure of new technology. The media also has the power to produce and diffuse meanings a corporation holds, therefore giving stakeholders a negotiation of the organizational identity
  • 128. “The Internet is becoming the town square for the global village of tomorrow” Bill Gates, founder, Microsoft “Almost overnight, the Internet's gone from a technical wonder to a business must.” Bill Schrader, businessman
  • 129. Benefits of Digital Marketing Reach Scope Immediacy Interactivity Targeting Adaptive Closed-loop marketing
  • 130. Conversion Funnel
  • 131. Techniques Blogs Ad Campaigns Search Engine Marketing (SEM) Search Engine Optimization (SEO) Forums Marketplaces & Directories VISITORS Call-to-Action Affiliate Programs Email Marketing Public Relations Social Media (SMM) Persuation LEADS Offline Protocols CLIENTS Client Orientation Usability Newsletter Selling Persuation Cross selling Newsletter Web Analytics LOYALS Community Creation Lock In’s
  • 132. How to attract visitors? 1. Search Engine Optimization (SEO) 2. Search Engine Marketing (SEM) 3. Ad Campaigns 4. Blogs 5. Marketplaces & Directories 6. Forums 7. Email Marketing 8. Online Public Relations 9. Social Media Marketing
  • 133. Empower your Organization with Social Media
  • 134. Why Social Media?
  • 135. When I was a kid, we had 3 channels that shut down at midnight. We had one newspaper. Work was over at 5pm. No info overload. We could remember a tagline. 151
  • 136. MONOLITHIC MESSAGES WORKED WHEN WE HAD: Limited product choice Limited media channels Longer brand interactions Higher barriers to entry (?) 152
  • 137. THE CONSUMER IS NOW FIRMLY IN CONTROL Time and attention are HUGE asks now. People are time-starved and avoid your attention-getters. There’s only one lever we can pull: TRUST. We can also leverage consumer publishing, which is, umm, more trusted than we are. ORIGINAL VERSION: AGENT WILDFIRE 153
  • 138. MARKETING OFTEN STUCK IN THE PAST Those LED billboards that blind you at night: when advertisers are willing to put their offer above the safety of your family, there’s a problem. 154
  • 139. MARKETING OFTEN STUCK IN THE PAST When airlines put ads on every seatback or overhead bin so that you can’t turn away, there’s a problem. 155
  • 140. MARKETING OFTEN STUCK IN THE PAST OMG, it’s Oprah’s last show! You find the link, click it...but instead you get 30 seconds of something you didn’t want. She looks like she’s happy she denied you your show, doesn’t she? Marketing need trumps consumer desire. 156
  • 141. 91% OF PEOPLE GLOBALLY WILL BUY FROM COMPANIES BASED ON TRUST 77% PEOPLE WHO REFUSE TO BUY FROM COMPANIES EDELMAN PR, 2009 THEY DISTRUST 157
  • 142. GROWING REVENUE IS NOT ABOUT TAGLINES, LOGOS, INTRUSION OR HANDWAVING. IT’S ABOUT USING YOUR SOCIALLY POWERED MARKETING EFFORTS TO GAIN TRUST. FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/POWERBOOKTRANCE 158
  • 143. PR 159
  • 144. HUMAN RESOURCES 160
  • 145. PRODUCT MANAGEMENT 161
  • 146. INVESTOR RELATIONS 162
  • 147. SALES 163
  • 148. EMPLOYEE & CUSTOMER TRAINING 164
  • 149. CUSTOMER CARE 165
  • 150. SUMMARY POINTS 200
  • 151. FIND WAYS TO INTERNALIZE CUSTOMER ENGAGEMENT FISH WHERE THE FISH ARE FOCUS ON MARKETING ENERGY, NOT MARKETING SPEND 201
  • 152. WHEN CONTENT IS ENGAGING, IT CAN BE SHARED, TRUSTED AND CREATE INFLUENCE RESPECT TIME STARVATION GIVE YOURSELF TIME TRUST DRIVES TRANSACTIONS, REPUTATION DRIVES REVENUE 202

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