This means getting the students interested in the class. Engage
Every lesson usually needs to have some kind of language focus. Study
For students to develop their use of English they need to have a chance to produce it . Activate
Why is planning important? gives teacher confidence planning is generally good practice and a sign of professionalism gives the teacher the opportunity to predict possible problems and therefore consider solutions makes sure that lesson is balanced and appropriate for class
What are the advantages and disadvantages of having a course book? ?
Advantages They do provide a ready made structure for teaching material
Disadvantages The material was written for the teachers' particular students Each class is different and teachers need to be able to adapt material from whatever source
What are the principles of planning? Prepare thoroughly, but in class, teach the learners, not the plan .
Aims Teachers need to know what they want their students to be able to do at the end of the lesson that they couldn't do before
What do the students know already?
What do the students need to know?
What did you do with the students in the previous class?
How well do the class work together?
How motivated are the students?
Take into account the things they like to do. The learners:
What is the subject matter of the lesson The teaching point
Teachers indicate what the activity will be Teaching procedures
Involves students in a number of different types of activities and where possible introduces them to a wide selection of materials Materials and variety
How to plan a lesson PLANNING LEARNERS: What do they like doing? What topics interest them? CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT: How will the chairs be arranged What instructions will I give? What happens if they don’t understand my instructions? How long is the whole lesson? MATERIAL: What materials will be used for each activity? What do I need to make, photocopy, borrow? What page of the coursebook have we got to? What can be used for homework? AIMS: What are the aims of the lesson? What are the aims of each activity? TEACHING PROCEDURES: What activities will help the learners achieve the lesson objectives? How will the activities link together to make a whole lesson? How long will each activity last? TEACHING POINT: What items of language will be studied or used in the lesson? What topics, contexts will be used? Am I confident about these teaching points? What preparation/ study do I need to do?
In this session, we will focus on 5 lesson planning models for use in second language classrooms:
Each of these models have their benefits and drawbacks, yet all have utility and application in the second language classroom.
It is perhaps the most commonly taught and used format. The main idea behind this is that it gives students :
Introduce the language and form(s) to be studied Explain concepts, provide definitions The students practice using the language and/or form(s) introduced by the teacher De-contextualized drilling, rote repetition Accuracy emphasized over fluency After students demonstrate successful use of language and/or form(s) in practice phase, the students are given an opportunity to use what they have learned in a less controlled setting
A relationship exists between the task, and a comparable, real-world context.
Tasks contain an information gap that must be resolved
Learners learn to construct their own meanings.
A task is a goal-oriented activity with a clear purpose. It should achieve an outcome and create a final product. Some examples include : listing, ordering and sorting, comparing, problem-solving, sharing personal experiences, and creative tasks. 2. Task Based Learning
Present review vocabulary What where who when how which why. Show an example of how the grammar is used. What’s the difference between the sentences. Discuss or explain subject Make a mind map / list What do you know about………? Show a picture What is .? What do you think about…? Have you? What happened? Compare X and ……. Title: what does it mean? Look at the pictures – What’s happening. Read first line – What is it about?
Gives new information
Grammar Vocabulary Listening Speaking Writing Reading Watching Can include a while activity
Helps learners use info in their lives .
Exercises in the book Make a list /mind map Make a dialog or role play Retell Ask the FIVE question strategy Make an outline of ……………. What where who when how which why. Compare X and ……. Make an advertisement for… What do you think about? Why? Draw a picture of Mixed sentences Write a letter to Into Pre activity Through activity Beyond Post activity Why How
Cognitive Learning Strategies Chamot & O’Malley (1994) Manipulating the material to be learned in a specific learning task. Linking new learning to prior knowledge related to particular concepts or processes Relating learning processes to linguistic demands in the domains of listening, speaking, reading and writing
Planning : Advanced organization; selective attention; self management Monitoring : Checking for comprehension; monitoring production, self-monitoring while speaking and writing Evaluating : Checking back; reflecting on what one has learned, judging how well the task has been accomplished Metacognitive Strategies Chamot & O’Malley (1994)
Resourcing : Using reference materials such as textbooks, dictionaries and encyclopedias Grouping : Classifying words, terminology, quantities, or concepts according to their attributes Note-taking : Writing down key words and concepts Elaboration : Relating new ideas and concepts to known information and making personal associations Cognitive Strategies Chamot & O’Malley (1994)
More Cognitive Strategies Chamot & O’Malley (1994)
Summarizing : Making mental, oral or written
summary of information gained at certain points
in learning process
Deduction/Induction : Use a rule/Make a rule
Imagery : Make a mental picture from the
Auditory Representation : Mentally replay a
word, phrase or piece of information
Making Inferences : Use context clues to guess
meaning and predict upcoming information
(Taken from: “The Learning Strategies Handbook” by Anna Uhl Chammot, Sarah Barnhardt, Pamela Beard El-Dinary, and Jill Robbins) Mptovation Cognitive conflict
Activate background knowledge
Class time that expands through out the lesson.
- Example: Brainstorming
Life Experiences : Dialogs about students’ experiences related to the topic
Direct Experiences : - Observation
- Stating the Hypothesis
Experimentations: - Investigation
Systematization: - Summary
- Visual Organizers
Application Prompt Strategies, give feedback Working on exercises, practices, activities, etc. Evaluation Assess Strategies Metacognitive, auto-evaluation, co-evaluation, hetero-evaluation Expansion / Transference Support transfer For example: Using what has been learned in real life situations
Sequencing activities hard complex creative new unknown using the information production (speak, wrt) Learner centered general Freer activities Easy Simple Mechanical Given Known Understanding Comprehension Teacher centered Specific Guided activities
Good lesson planning is the art of mixing techniques, activities and materials in such a way that an ideal balance is created for the class. Conclusion
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