Earths Layers

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  • 1. Earth Layers
    • The Earth is divided into four main layers.
      • *Inner Core
      • *Outer Core
      • *Mantle
      • *Crust
  • 2. The Earth’s Crust
    • The crust is the thinnest layer on Earth, 5 km to 100 km
    • There are two types of crust
        • Oceanic crust – made mostly of the igneous rock basalt. Found under the ocean. Relatively thin,
        • 5 km to 7 km. Contains more iron than the Continental crust, therefore is more dense.
        • Continental crust – made mostly of granite. Found under the continents. Relatively thick, up to 100 km.
  • 3. Special parts of the Crust
    • Lithosphere
      • Crust is the upper part of the lithosphere.
      • Broken up into large plates.
      • The uppermost part of the mantle is also part of the Lithosphere
    • Asthenosphere
      • Upper part of mantle, below lithosphere
      • 130 – 160 km thick
      • Cooler part of the mantle that the lithosphere plates slide on top of.
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6. The Earth’s Mantle
    • Located directly above the outer core
    • Starts below the crust
    • Is the largest layer
    • 80% of the Earth’s volume & 68% of Earth’s mass
  • 7. The Earth’s Mantle
    • Composed of more iron than the crust.
    • Density, pressure, and temperature all increase the deeper you go in the mantle
    • Temperature ranges from 870 C – 2200 C
  • 8.  
  • 9. Special layers of the mantle
    • Lithosphere – crust plus the upper, solid part of the mantle. Forms plates.
    • Asthenosphere – just under the lithosphere. Slow moving “Silly putty” layer on which the lithospheric plates slide. (Solid rock that flows very slowly.)
  • 10.  
  • 11. The Earth’s Core
    • The Earth’s Core
    • Composed of the inner and outer core
    • Both are made of iron and nickel
  • 12. The Earth’s Outer Core
    • The Outer Core - Liquid
    • Surrounds the inner core
    • Temperature ranges from 2200 C – 5000 C near inner core
    • Molten (liquid) iron and nickel
  • 13.  
  • 14. The Earth’s Inner Core
    • The Inner Core - Solid
    • Temperature reaches 5000 C
    • Solid iron and nickel
      • Usually both would be liquid but are solid in the core because of the incredible pressure
    • The solid core is the source of Earth’s magnetic field
  • 15. Magnetosphere
    • The inner core and outer cores do not turn at the same speed as the rest of the earth.
    • Causes a generator effect which produces a magnetic field.
    • It protects us from some of the sun’s harmful radiation.
  • 16.  
  • 17.
    • What does the inside of the Earth look like?
    • How do scientists know that there is a solid inner core?
  • 18.
    • Determining the composition of the Earth
    • Scientists cannot see the interior of the planet, or drill to the core, so they use seismic waves to determine the composition of the layers.
    • Seismic waves: are vibrations that are produced when an earthquake happens.
    • Seismic waves travel at different speed depending on the composition and density of material. Measuring these waves tells us what is in the Earth’s layers, and how the materials change.
  • 19. i
  • 20. What do you know about these layers?