Earths  Layers
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Earths Layers






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    Earths  Layers Earths Layers Presentation Transcript

    • Earth Layers
      • The Earth is divided into four main layers.
        • *Inner Core
        • *Outer Core
        • *Mantle
        • *Crust
    • The Earth’s Crust
      • The crust is the thinnest layer on Earth, 5 km to 100 km
      • There are two types of crust
          • Oceanic crust – made mostly of the igneous rock basalt. Found under the ocean. Relatively thin,
          • 5 km to 7 km. Contains more iron than the Continental crust, therefore is more dense.
          • Continental crust – made mostly of granite. Found under the continents. Relatively thick, up to 100 km.
    • Special parts of the Crust
      • Lithosphere
        • Crust is the upper part of the lithosphere.
        • Broken up into large plates.
        • The uppermost part of the mantle is also part of the Lithosphere
      • Asthenosphere
        • Upper part of mantle, below lithosphere
        • 130 – 160 km thick
        • Cooler part of the mantle that the lithosphere plates slide on top of.
    • The Earth’s Mantle
      • Located directly above the outer core
      • Starts below the crust
      • Is the largest layer
      • 80% of the Earth’s volume & 68% of Earth’s mass
    • The Earth’s Mantle
      • Composed of more iron than the crust.
      • Density, pressure, and temperature all increase the deeper you go in the mantle
      • Temperature ranges from 870 C – 2200 C
    • Special layers of the mantle
      • Lithosphere – crust plus the upper, solid part of the mantle. Forms plates.
      • Asthenosphere – just under the lithosphere. Slow moving “Silly putty” layer on which the lithospheric plates slide. (Solid rock that flows very slowly.)
    • The Earth’s Core
      • The Earth’s Core
      • Composed of the inner and outer core
      • Both are made of iron and nickel
    • The Earth’s Outer Core
      • The Outer Core - Liquid
      • Surrounds the inner core
      • Temperature ranges from 2200 C – 5000 C near inner core
      • Molten (liquid) iron and nickel
    • The Earth’s Inner Core
      • The Inner Core - Solid
      • Temperature reaches 5000 C
      • Solid iron and nickel
        • Usually both would be liquid but are solid in the core because of the incredible pressure
      • The solid core is the source of Earth’s magnetic field
    • Magnetosphere
      • The inner core and outer cores do not turn at the same speed as the rest of the earth.
      • Causes a generator effect which produces a magnetic field.
      • It protects us from some of the sun’s harmful radiation.
      • What does the inside of the Earth look like?
      • How do scientists know that there is a solid inner core?
      • Determining the composition of the Earth
      • Scientists cannot see the interior of the planet, or drill to the core, so they use seismic waves to determine the composition of the layers.
      • Seismic waves: are vibrations that are produced when an earthquake happens.
      • Seismic waves travel at different speed depending on the composition and density of material. Measuring these waves tells us what is in the Earth’s layers, and how the materials change.
    • i
    • What do you know about these layers?