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Middle east ppt2[1]
 

Middle east ppt2[1]

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  • These are the flags of the US, Iraq (left), and Afghanistan (right). What do we have in common: right now the US maintains a military presence in both nations after invading Afghanistan in 2001 and Iraq in 2003. However, at various points in the last 50 years, the US has supported these nations financially and militarily…in essence, we were allies. Ask: What went wrong?
  • Introduce the unit essential questions (see PowerPoint). Explain that the content about to be studied is incredibly sensitive and deals with what is likely the world’s most complex conflict.
  • Have students complete a KWL chart about the Middle East.
  • Introduce geographic features from Fact #1 and have students label and color a blank map. It is recommended that they label these specific nations as well: Egypt, Israel, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan although this need not be assessed. END DAY ONE
  • Have students to refer to their maps from the previous day. Let them know that this region is considered the “Cradle of Civilization.” Ask them what they think that means. Ask them what physical features of the region would lead help civilizations develop. Prompt students to address the rivers, especially the Tigris and Euphrates, as a region conducive to farming and population growth. Introduce the concept of the “fertile crescent.”
  • View the segment “Ancient Middle East” from video “Culture and Math: The Arabs” from www.discoveryeducation.com (formerly United Streaming; school log-in required). This clip is 4:14 minutes long and describes how farming in the fertile crescent contributed to the birth of civilization, especially Ancient Sumer.
  • Using the PowerPoint, take students through the accomplishments of other ancient civilizations: Sumer, Israel, Babylon, Phoenicia, Persia, Byzantines, and Muslims (Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires). In lieu of taking notes during the presentation, have students complete a “Table Rally” at the conclusion.
  • Table Rally This reading game encourages good listening skills and is an effective way to tackle a very long or complicated reading selection. Students read a text selection and recall important information in a group setting. The game enables students to: summarize important information from a text record needed information reflect on recorded information recall and refine knowledge make personal connections with the text Teacher Preparation : Select the text to be read. Prepare to explain the game procedure. Lesson Plan : Hand out the text material. All students read the text. Divide the class into tables/groups of 4. Each team numbers off from 1 to 4. Person #1 shares with person #2 as much as he/she can remember from the reading. At the same time, person #3 shares as much as he/she can remember with person #4. Now person #2 shares all that he/she can remember with person #1, and person #4 shares with person #3. Each person, 1-4, shares with the table what he/she learned from his/her partner. The group now passes a sheet of paper clockwise around the table. Each person writes in a complete sentence something he/she learned about the topic. The group continues to pass the paper around until no more information can be recalled or until time is called. The group with the most complete, original sentences wins.
  • Debrief results from the 3-2-1 responses. Discuss with students the “surprises.” Have students discuss their perceptions about the region then vs. the region now. Students, for example, may have been surprised to learn that the region was once rich and powerful and had accomplished so much. Today, the region is often viewed as poor and war-torn. Explain to students that this is one of the reasons for the conflict today: Many Muslims feel that the West dismisses the accomplishments of the civilizations that grew out of the Middle East and that, currently, Western culture is overshadowing or destroying Islamic culture. END DAY TWO
  • Debrief results from the 3-2-1 responses. Discuss with students the “surprises.” Have students discuss their perceptions about the region then vs. the region now. Students, for example, may have been surprised to learn that the region was once rich and powerful and had accomplished so much. Today, the region is often viewed as poor and war-torn. Some even think of it as “backwards.” Explain to students that this is one of the reasons for the conflict today: Many Muslims feel that the West dismisses the accomplishments of the civilizations that grew out of the Middle East and that, currently, Western culture is overshadowing or destroying Islamic culture. Using www.discoveryeducation.com (formerly United Streaming; school log-in required), view the film entitled “Israel and Palestine: The Roots of Conflict.” Its length is 22:40. As students watch, have them complete “Window Notes” or the companion quiz to the video (click here for student copy and answer key). Note that this video ends by mentioning the role that Ariel Sharon and Yasser Arafat will need to play to achieve peace. Make sure students realize this video was created in 2004. Arafat died in 2004 and Sharon has been in a coma since 2006.
  • Present the segment of the PowerPoint called “Conflict Case Study: Israel.” Have students complete “Walk Around Survey” to gather and evaluate essential information about the topic for today. This is in preparation for content-specific prompt for the 7th Grade Writing Assessment System that will begin in a couple of days. END DAY THREE
  • Present the “One-Minute Overview.” Using resources on http://israelipalestinian.procon.org/ , consider showing students the maps, photos, “Did you know” and timeline.
  • . Using www.discoveryeducation.com (formerly United Streaming; school log-in required), view the film entitled “When the Taliban Ruled Afghanistan.” Its length is 5:41. Note that the video was made in 2004 and ends by stating that the Taliban has been removed from power. Since 2004, however, the Taliban has regained control of parts of Afghanistan and the US has increased the number of troops in the country. Have student complete the “Sum It Up” summarization strategy upon conclusion of the film. 22. Present PowerPoint segment called “Case Study: Conflict in Afghanistan.” Have students complete a “Quick Write” about each of the essential questions listed for this segment. 23. Have students add to their KWL Chart. END DAY EIGHT
  • Introduce slides in PowerPoint that address the essential questions and enduring understandings for the case study on Iran. Show clip from Discovery Education (United Streaming) titled “The Iran Hostage Crisis” (note that it is a segment of the larger film entitled “History in the Making: 1980). This clip is 5:30 minutes long. Additional clips are below: The Hostages Crisis Revisited (from 1989): http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/21134540/vp/31391919#31391919 Hostage Crisis Begins: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=6514970403415504262# Hostage Crisis Ends: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=6514970403415504262#docid=-4007512551562643351
  • Note: The coup was the first time the US had openly overthrown an elected, civil government. Present information in PowerPoint for the case study on Iran. Optional video clips regarding protests over recent elections: CNN clip: http://www.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/meast/06/13/iran.election/#cnnSTCVideo ABC News clip: http://a.abcnews.com/International/story?id=7878713 CNN clip regarding the death of Neda Agha-Soltan (NOTE: This video is slightly graphic): http://www.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/meast/06/20/iran.neda.anniversary/index.html?eref=rss_world&utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+rss%2Fcnn_world+%28RSS%3A+World%29&utm_content=Google+Feedfetcher
  • CNN clip from: http://www.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/meast/06/13/iran.election/#cnnSTCVideo
  • Introduce PowerPoint slides regarding essential questions and enduring understandings in “Case Study: Conflict in Iraq.” View film clip about the rise and fall of Saddam Hussein: http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=2314881n
  • Donald Rumsfeld shakes hands with Saddam Hussein.
  • Photo: In Iraq, ink on the index finger is similar to the “I Voted” stickers in the US.

Middle east ppt2[1] Middle east ppt2[1] Presentation Transcript

  • The Middle East 7 th Grade Social Studies The Middle East
  • What do we have in common?
  • Unit Essential Questions
    • 1. What are the causes of the conflicts in the Middle East?
    • 2. Who is entitled to the land that is in dispute in the region?
    • 3. Why is the United States fighting in Iraq and Afghanistan?
    • 4. What are possible solutions to the conflicts in the Middle East?
  • K/W/L What do you already know? What do you want to learn? What did you learn?
  • Middle East Map
  • The Fertile Crescent
  • How did farming in the Middle East contribute to the birth of civilizations?
    • Generate ideas from film…
  • Ancient Civilizations and Their Accomplishments
  • Mesopotamia
    • used irrigation and canals to help water crops during the dry season.
  • Sumer
    • Was an advanced society that consisted of large city-states, fortified cities, and strong armies.
    • Sumerians are credited with many advancements:
      • The first writing system called cuneiform; they wrote works on history, law, grammar, math, and literature.
      • Wheels used for vehicles and for making pottery.
      • The plow & irrigation which increased farm production.
      • The clock for telling time.
      • Sewer systems
      • Use of bronze to strengthen tools and weapons.
  • Israel
    • Was the first monotheistic civilization.
    • Established a kingdom in Jerusalem and built Solomon’s Temple. Over time this temple was destroyed (by Babylonians), rebuilt, and destroyed again (by the Romans).
    • The Jews were killed, exiled, or enslaved by several groups that conquered the region including the Babylonians, Assyrians, and Romans.
  • Babylon
    • Developed Hammurabi’s Code which was a thorough set of written laws.
  • Phoenicia
    • Built the world’s finest harbors to enhance trade over the waterways
    • Developed one of the world’s first alphabets (on which our current alphabet is based).
  • Persia
    • known for paintings, carpet, metalwork, architecture
  • Byzantine Empire (Romans)
    • Established a strong military presence in the region.
    • Forced Jews into exile (leading to Diaspora) and helped advance the spread of Christianity.
  • Muslims
    • Defeated the Persian and Byzantine Empires but allowed Jews and Christians to practice their religion.
    • Grew into three separate empires: Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal.
  • Ottoman Empire
    • Grew into areas of North Africa, Central Asia, and Europe. The Ottomans were Sunni Muslims.
    • Survived until the end of World War I
  • Safavid Empire
    • consisted of Shia Muslims who moved to occupy present-day Iran (which is largely Shia to this day). This was the origin of the Shah.
  • Mughal Empire
    • Moved into northern India (which includes present-day Pakistan) and established a tolerant religious policy that allowed Muslims and Hindus to live in peace. Later emperors reversed the policy which led to violence.
  • Cultural Achievements of the Muslims
    • Focus on astronomy helped develop better understanding of time and of geography.
    • Focus on geography led to accurate maps that assisted in exploration and trade.
    • Focus on mathematics led to the development of Algebra.
    • Focus on medicine led to cures for many serious diseases.
    • Focus on literature and the arts led to significant works of poetry and short stories including ones about Sinbad, Aladdin, and Ali Baba. It also led to use of calligraphy and an emphasis on architecture, especially for mosques.
    • Note that Muslim Empires ruled parts of the world for over 600 years (1299-1923)
  • Table Rally Time
  • 3-2-1
    • Three things that have surprised you.
    • Two questions you have.
    • One thing that confirmed what you already knew about the region.
  • Conflict Case Study: Israel
  • Essential Questions
    • What are the causes of the conflicts in the Middle East?
    • Who is entitled to the land that is in dispute in the region?
    • What are possible solutions to the conflicts in the Middle East?
  • Enduring Understandings
    • Conflict in the among nations in the Middle East exists due to religious, cultural and ethnic differences and disputes over territory and resources.
    • Many Muslims disapprove of US foreign policy which favors Israel, has helped overthrow elected leaders, and has supported corrupt and totalitarian governments in the region.
    • It is difficult to determine who is entitled to the land in the region because, throughout history, numerous groups (including Jews, Christians, and Muslims) have conquered and possessed the land.
    • Solutions to conflict in the Middle East may require the West to adjust its foreign policy and for Middle Eastern nations to take risks toward peace.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • The Ottomans controlled much of the Middle East, including present-day Israel for hundreds of years. This empire supported Germany during World War I. When the war ended, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned and Great Britain was given mandate over the region.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • As a result of the Diaspora, the Zionist Movement and of events from World War I (partitioning of Ottoman Empire, Balfour Declaration) and World War II (the Holocaust), the United Nations helped to establish the nation of Israel as a homeland for Jews in 1948.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • The creation of Israel in 1948 led to an immediate invasion by neighboring Arab nations and several other short wars. This often resulted in expansion of Israeli territory in land set aside for Palestinians.
  • Revisiting Essential Questions
    • What are the causes of conflict between Israel and the Arab world?
    • Who do you think is entitled to the disputed land?
  • Attempts Toward Peace
    • Attempts at peace have had mixed results: a peace accord between Egypt and Israel has lasted since the 1970s; attempts at peace between Israel and Palestinian territories have not been successful.
  • Peace in Our Time
    • Camp David Accord—1978
    • Israel to withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula
    • Egypt to break ties with Arab nations; pledged peace
    • The U.S. to give Egypt financial assistance
  •  
  • Peace in Our Time
    • Intifada—1987
    • “ Intifada” erupted in the Gaza Strip
    • Israel cracks down
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • Peace in Our Time…
    • Oslo Peace Accord—September 19, 1993
    • Israel to withdraw from territories
    • West Bank/Gaza to become Palestinian entities
    • PLO to stop intifada
  •  
  •  
  • Peace in Our Time…
    • July 11, 2000—Camp David Summit
    • Peace negotiations collapsed
    • Result
      • Intifada continued
      • Crack-downs continued
  •  
  •  
  • Summer 2005
    • Israel gives Gaza to the Palestinians
    • Jews refuse to leave; Are forcibly removed by Israeli military
  • Sporadic violence hits Gaza pullout Israeli soldiers serve eviction notices on Jewish settlers Monday, August 15, 2005; Posted: 5:17 a.m. EDT (09:17 GMT)
  •  
  •  
  • Today
    • The West Bank and Gaza are essentially under Palestinian control but do not have official recognition as independent states.
    • Sporadic violence continues.
  • Solutions?
  • Case Study—Conflict in Afghanistan
  • Essential Questions
    • What are the causes of conflict in Afghanistan?
    • Why is the United States fighting in Afghanistan?
    • What are possible solutions to the conflict in Afghanistan?
  • Enduring Understandings
    • Conflict in the among nations in the Middle East exists due to religious, cultural and ethnic differences and disputes over territory and resources.
    • Many Muslims disapprove of US foreign policy which favors Israel, has helped overthrow elected leaders, and has supported corrupt and totalitarian governments in the region.
    • Though Islam is a peaceful religion, radical Muslims believe the Koran instructs them to wage war against enemies of Allah. This is called jihad.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 led to an Afghan resistance that was backed by Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and the US. This resistance movement developed into the mujahideen, of which Osama bin Laden was a participant. The idea of jihad against the West gained strength during this movement.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • The resistance developed into a movement of radical Muslims. From this, the Taliban emerged to control Afghanistan after the Soviets withdrew. Osama bin Laden lived in several other Muslim nations to spread the message of jihad against the West. He ultimately returned to Afghanistan and Al-Qaeda was born.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • The Taliban is an example of an oligarchy. It established very strict laws for women and banned nearly every form of Western culture (music, movies, television).
  • Roots of Conflict
    • Prior to the September 11 attacks, Al-Qaeda carried out several other deadly attacks including the bombing of two US embassies in Africa and bombing the USS Cole .
  • Roots of Conflict
    • After September 11, the US invaded Afghanistan in an attempt to find Osama bin Laden and remove the Taliban from power.
  • Essential Questions
    • What are the causes of conflict in Afghanistan?
    • Why is the United States fighting in Afghanistan?
    • What are possible solutions to the conflict in Afghanistan?
  • Case Study: Conflict in Iran
  • Essential Questions
    • What are the causes of conflict in Iran?
    • Why is there a strained relationship between the US and Iran?
    • What are possible solutions to the conflict in Iran?
  • Enduring Understandings
    • Conflict in the among nations in the Middle East exists due to religious, cultural and ethnic differences and disputes over territory and resources.
    • Many Muslims disapprove of US foreign policy which favors Israel, has helped overthrow elected leaders, and has supported corrupt and totalitarian governments in the region.
    • Solutions to conflict in the Middle East may require the West to adjust its foreign policy and for Middle Eastern nations to take risks toward peace.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • With the help of the US and Britain, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (the Shah) seized power through a coup in 1953. He worked to modernize the county and expand civil rights, including women’s suffrage.
    • He also became increasingly dictatorial in his approach and used secret police to eliminate political opposition.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • Ayatollah Khomeini led the clerical opposition to the Shah’s reforms and advocated a strict Islamic state. In 1964, he was arrested and ultimately exiled where he continued to denounce the Shah and the US.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • In 1978 and 1979, several political groups organized demonstrations against the Shah and his policies which led to martial law. The Shah fled and Khomeini returned. Voters approved a theocratic constitution and established Iran as an Islamic Republic. This was known as the “Islamic Revolution” or “Iranian Revolution.” Relations with the US significantly deteriorated during this time.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • In November 1979, Iranian students seized the US embassy in Tehran, keeping 52 hostages for 444 days. The US military made failed attempts to rescue them. Iran released them on the day of Ronald Reagan’s inauguration as president.
  •  
  •  
  • Roots of Conflict
    • Believing that this time in Iran’s history left it in a weakened state, Saddam Hussein of Iraq invaded Iran in 1980. The Iran-Iraq war lasted until 1988.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • The United States supported Iraq in this conflict, though the US secretly agreed to sell weapons to Iran in what became known as the Iran-Contra Affair. This was an attempt by the US to exchange weapons for additional American hostages being held in various middle eastern countries.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • Iran remained neutral during the first Gulf War and helped negotiate the release of Western hostages in 1991. It also back anti-Taliban forces in Afghanistan in an attempt to protect Shia Muslims in the region.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • In the last 20 years, Iran has been criticized for cracking down on free speech, free press, and peaceful assembly. Election results have been largely disputed.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • Iran condemned the September 11 attacks on the United States and remained on the sidelines during the US-led invasion of Afghanistan. In 2002, President Bush said that Iran (along with Iraq and North Korea) were part of an “axis of evil.” Then the US accused Iran of arming and providing refuge to terrorists. During this time, Iran and Iraq took steps to improve relationships.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • The United Nations is concerned about Iran’s nuclear capabilities and has issued economic sanctions against the nation until it complies with international law.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • Corruption and disputed election outcomes have led to significant protests in Iran in 1999, 2003, and 2009.
  • Case Study: Conflict in Iraq
  • Essential Questions
    • What are the causes of the conflicts in the Middle East?
    • Why is the United States fighting in Iraq and Afghanistan?
    • What are possible solutions to the conflicts in the Middle East?
  • Enduring Understandings
    • Conflict in the among nations in the Middle East exists due to religious, cultural and ethnic differences and disputes over territory and resources.
    • Many Muslims disapprove of US foreign policy which favors Israel, has helped overthrow elected leaders, and has supported corrupt and totalitarian governments in the region.
    • Solutions to conflict in the Middle East may require the West to adjust its foreign policy and for Middle Eastern nations to take risks toward peace.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • After World War I, the British were given a mandate over Iraq (much like in Israel) and installed a king that was not Iraqi.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • The country was in turmoil as numerous groups fought for power including Sunnis, Shias, Assyrians, and Kurds.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • Iraq went through a series of kings until the monarchy ended in a coup. A series of coups followed until Saddam Hussein seized power in 1969.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • Dictatorial rule by Saddam suppressed political adversaries and violated human rights of certain groups, particularly the Kurds (on whom he used chemical weapons) and the Shia majority (Saddam was Sunni).
  • Roots of Conflict
    • In 1980, Saddam Hussein invaded Iran in an attempt to grab oil fields, territory, and power in the region.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • Because of the Iran Hostage Crisis of the late 1970s, the US supported Iraq in the Iran-Iraq War.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • The Iran-Iraq War lasted for 8 years caused the deaths of 1.5 million people. Ultimately the United Nations mandated a cease-fire and neither side gained much.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • In 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait in an attempt to grab oil, territory, and power. This invasion was suppressed by the US and its allies but Saddam was allowed to remain in power for fear that Iraq would be vulnerable to attack from Iran if Saddam was removed.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • Once the war ended, Saddam was ordered to destroy his weapons of mass destruction (which had been used against the Kurds) and submit to UN weapons inspection.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • Because Saddam regularly rebuffed the efforts of the inspectors, the UN imposed economic sanctions against Iraqi which lead to an economic and humanitarian crisis: Iraq had over-specialized in oil production and could not export its supply because of the sanctions; as a result, it could not provide basic essentials for its people.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • Problems with the United Nations and the US regarding inspections for weapons of mass destruction ultimately led to the US invasion of Iraq in 2003.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • Saddam Hussein was captured by Americans and ultimately executed in 2006 by a new Iraqi government for crimes against humanity.
  • Roots of Conflict
    • Though Iraq has held several free elections and is working toward being a more democratic society, there continues to be conflict between forces for democracy and those that wish to see an Islamic form of government.