Grammar boot camp #2

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  • 1. Grammar Boot Camp Building Muscle: Phrases and Clauses (click mouse to proceed)
  • 2. Your Mission:  To Study Phrases  To Study Clauses  To Exercise your Writing Muscles This presentation is enhanced with “Question and Answer” slides. To access, simply click on the words that are highlighted and underlined.
  • 3. What is a Phrase? A phrase is a group of related words that does not contain a subject and a verb. Common Phrases:  Prepositional Phrases  Infinitive Phrases  Participial Phrases  Gerund Phrases
  • 4. Prepositional Phrase Begins with a preposition (in, on, under, over, around, of, about, through, etc.) Followed by an object and any modifiers Functions as an adjective or adverb
  • 5. Examples of Prepositional Phrase1. The cadets marched through the woods.  “th ro ug h” is the pre po siti on  “th
  • 6. Infinitive Phrase Begins with an infinitive: “to” + verb Followed by an object and any modifiers Functions as a noun, adjective or adverb
  • 7. Examples of Infinitive Phrase1. To exercise every day is a good habit.  “to exercise” is the infinitive  “every” is the modifier for the object “day”  Functions as a noun2. I was relieved to finish my project.  “to finish” is the infinitive  “my” is the modifier for the object “project”  Functions as an adjective
  • 8. Participial Phrase Begins with a participle: verb ending in “- ed,” “-en,” or “-ing” Followed by an object and any modifiers Functions as an adjective
  • 9. Examples of Participial Phrase1. The marine biologist, diving near a reef, saw a shark. “diving” is the participle “near a” are the modifiers for the object “reef” Functions as an adjective2. Known for her patience, Mrs. Gilmore was his favorite teacher.  “kn own ” is the parti ciple  “for
  • 10. Gerund Phrase Begins with a gerund: verb ending in “-ing” Followed by object and any modifiers Functions as a noun
  • 11. Examples of Gerund Phrase1.Marching in unison builds teamwork. “marching” is the gerund “in” is the modifier for the object “unison” Functions as a noun2.The student enjoys taking morning classes.  “ta kin g” is the ger und  “m
  • 12. What is a Clause? A clause is a group of related words that contains both a subject and a verb. Two Types of Clauses:  Independent Clause  Dependent Clause
  • 13. Independent Clause Contains a subject and a verb Makes a complete statement Can stand alone
  • 14. Examples of Independent Clause1. Del Mar is a community college.  “Del Mar” is the subject  “is” is the verb  “a community college” completes the thought2. The Writing Center offers a variety of services.  “The Writing Center” is the subject  “offers” is the verb  “a variety of services” completes the thought
  • 15. Dependent Clause Contains a subject and a verb Does not make a complete statement Cannot Stand Alone Begins with a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun: after who although whom as that relative pronouns because which before subordinating conjunctions whose if since until when
  • 16. Examples of Dependent Clause1. Because the student prepared for the exam, she answered all of the questions correctly.  “because” is the subordinating conjunction  “the student” is the subject  “prepared” is the verb  “for the exam” completes the dependent clause2. The uniform that I am required to wear is green and brown.  “that” is the relative pronoun  “I” is the subject  “am” is the verb  “required to wear” completes the dependent clause
  • 17. Exercise Your Muscles:PhrasesIdentify the type of phrase in the following:1. Being an excellent cook, Ryan hosted a dinner party.2. To be elected president is his objective.3. The puppy chased the kitten around the house.4. Hoisting the sail correctly is a critical component of yachting.
  • 18. Exercise Your Muscles:ClausesIdentify the type of clause in the following:1. I walk my dog every day.2. Because he is a teacher.3. As the soccer player scored the winning goal.4. Zeke hit his thumb with a hammer.
  • 19. Congratulations!You have successfully completed Building Muscle: Phrases and Clauses of Grammar Boot Camp.
  • 20. Q: What is an Adjective?A: An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun. It answers the question how many? what kind? or which one?Return to presentation.
  • 21. Q: What is an Adverb?A: An adverb modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. Adverbs tell where, when, why, how, how often, how much, or to what degree.Return to presentation.
  • 22. Q: What is a Noun?A: A noun is a person, place, thing, or idea.Examples of Nouns: person place thingA teacher living in Corpus Christi wrote a book ideaabout integrity.Return to presentation.
  • 23. Q: What is a Subordinating Conjunction?A: A subordinating conjunction is a word that links sentence elements that are not of equal importance. The following is a list of common subordinating conjunctions: after once until although since when as that whenever because though where before till wherever if unless whileReturn to presentation.
  • 24. Q: What is a Relative Pronoun?A: A relative pronoun is a word that relates the dependent clause to the independent clause within a sentence. The following is a list of relative pronouns: who whoever what whatever that whom whomever whose whichever whichReturn to presentation.