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Grammar Boot Camp Building Muscle: Phrases and Clauses (click mouse to proceed)
Your Mission: To Study Phrases To Study Clauses To Exercise your Writing Muscles This presentation is enhanced with “Question and Answer” slides. To access, simply click on the words that are highlighted and underlined.
What is a Phrase? A phrase is a group of related words that does not contain a subject and a verb. Common Phrases: Prepositional Phrases Infinitive Phrases Participial Phrases Gerund Phrases
Prepositional Phrase Begins with a preposition (in, on, under, over, around, of, about, through, etc.) Followed by an object and any modifiers Functions as an adjective or adverb
Examples of Prepositional Phrase1. The cadets marched through the woods. “th ro ug h” is the pre po siti on “th
Infinitive Phrase Begins with an infinitive: “to” + verb Followed by an object and any modifiers Functions as a noun, adjective or adverb
Examples of Infinitive Phrase1. To exercise every day is a good habit. “to exercise” is the infinitive “every” is the modifier for the object “day” Functions as a noun2. I was relieved to finish my project. “to finish” is the infinitive “my” is the modifier for the object “project” Functions as an adjective
Participial Phrase Begins with a participle: verb ending in “- ed,” “-en,” or “-ing” Followed by an object and any modifiers Functions as an adjective
Examples of Participial Phrase1. The marine biologist, diving near a reef, saw a shark. “diving” is the participle “near a” are the modifiers for the object “reef” Functions as an adjective2. Known for her patience, Mrs. Gilmore was his favorite teacher. “kn own ” is the parti ciple “for
Gerund Phrase Begins with a gerund: verb ending in “-ing” Followed by object and any modifiers Functions as a noun
Examples of Gerund Phrase1.Marching in unison builds teamwork. “marching” is the gerund “in” is the modifier for the object “unison” Functions as a noun2.The student enjoys taking morning classes. “ta kin g” is the ger und “m
What is a Clause? A clause is a group of related words that contains both a subject and a verb. Two Types of Clauses: Independent Clause Dependent Clause
Independent Clause Contains a subject and a verb Makes a complete statement Can stand alone
Examples of Independent Clause1. Del Mar is a community college. “Del Mar” is the subject “is” is the verb “a community college” completes the thought2. The Writing Center offers a variety of services. “The Writing Center” is the subject “offers” is the verb “a variety of services” completes the thought
Dependent Clause Contains a subject and a verb Does not make a complete statement Cannot Stand Alone Begins with a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun: after who although whom as that relative pronouns because which before subordinating conjunctions whose if since until when
Examples of Dependent Clause1. Because the student prepared for the exam, she answered all of the questions correctly. “because” is the subordinating conjunction “the student” is the subject “prepared” is the verb “for the exam” completes the dependent clause2. The uniform that I am required to wear is green and brown. “that” is the relative pronoun “I” is the subject “am” is the verb “required to wear” completes the dependent clause
Exercise Your Muscles:PhrasesIdentify the type of phrase in the following:1. Being an excellent cook, Ryan hosted a dinner party.2. To be elected president is his objective.3. The puppy chased the kitten around the house.4. Hoisting the sail correctly is a critical component of yachting.
Exercise Your Muscles:ClausesIdentify the type of clause in the following:1. I walk my dog every day.2. Because he is a teacher.3. As the soccer player scored the winning goal.4. Zeke hit his thumb with a hammer.
Congratulations!You have successfully completed Building Muscle: Phrases and Clauses of Grammar Boot Camp.
Q: What is an Adjective?A: An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun. It answers the question how many? what kind? or which one?Return to presentation.
Q: What is an Adverb?A: An adverb modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. Adverbs tell where, when, why, how, how often, how much, or to what degree.Return to presentation.
Q: What is a Noun?A: A noun is a person, place, thing, or idea.Examples of Nouns: person place thingA teacher living in Corpus Christi wrote a book ideaabout integrity.Return to presentation.
Q: What is a Subordinating Conjunction?A: A subordinating conjunction is a word that links sentence elements that are not of equal importance. The following is a list of common subordinating conjunctions: after once until although since when as that whenever because though where before till wherever if unless whileReturn to presentation.
Q: What is a Relative Pronoun?A: A relative pronoun is a word that relates the dependent clause to the independent clause within a sentence. The following is a list of relative pronouns: who whoever what whatever that whom whomever whose whichever whichReturn to presentation.