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Grammar boot camp #1
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Grammar boot camp #1

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  • 1. Grammar Boot Camp Obstacle Course:Fragments, Run-ons, Comma Splices (click mouse to proceed)
  • 2. Your Mission: To Study Fragments To Study Run-ons To Study Comma Splices To Exercise your Writing Muscles This presentation is enhanced with “Question and Answer” slides. To access, simply click on the words that are highlighted and underlined.
  • 3. What is a Fragment? A sentence fragment is an incomplete thought. Choose one of the following options to correct a fragment: 1. Connect the fragment to the sentence before it, or 2. Connect the fragment to the sentence after it, or 3. Rewrite the fragment so that it is a complete thought.
  • 4. FragmentsDependent Clause Fragment: Begins with a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun. Fragment: When it is time to go home. Correction: When it is time to go home, I will call you.
  • 5. Fragments“-ing” Fragment: Begins with a word ending in “-ing.” Fragment: Waiting for the rain to stop. Correction: Waiting for the rain to stop, the pedestrian sought refuge in the corner café.
  • 6. Fragments“To” Fragment: Begins with the word “to.” Fragment: To do my best. Correction: My grandfather taught me to do my best.
  • 7. FragmentsAdded-Detail Fragment: Begins with “for example,” “such as,” “especially,” and similar transitions. Fragment: Especially when the vegetables are fresh. Correction: I enjoy salads, especially when the vegetables are fresh.
  • 8. What is a Run-on? A run-on contains two more independent clauses without punctuation signaling the end of the first clause and the beginning of the next clause. Example: Many dogs enter the contest the poodle is the usual winner.
  • 9. What is a Comma Splice? A comma splice is a sentence with two or more independent clauses joined by only a comma. Example: The book is inspirational, it changed my life.
  • 10. Correct Run-ons and Comma Splices:1. Make Two Separate Sentences: Run-on: John mowed the lawn Alex raked the leaves. Comma Splice: John mowed the lawn, Alex raked the leaves. Correction: John mowed the lawn. Alex raked the leaves. Correction: John mowed the lawn, and Alex raked the leaves.
  • 11. Correct Run-ons and Comma Splices:2. Use Comma Plus Coordinating Conjunction: Run-on: Julie is not my sister she is my cousin. Comma Splice: Julie is not my sister, she is my cousin. Correction: Julie is not my sister, but she is my cousin.
  • 12. Correct Run-ons and Comma Splices:3. Use Semicolon to Connect the Sentences: Run-on: The clown’s jumpsuit was colorful it had multicolor stripes. Comma Splice: The clown’s jumpsuit was colorful, it had multicolor stripes. Correction: The clown’s jumpsuit was colorful; it had multicolor stripes.
  • 13. Correct Run-ons and Comma Splices:4. Use a Conjunctive Adverb with Appropriate Punctuation: Run-on: We joined the group for dinner we did not go to the concert afterward. Comma Splice: We joined the group for dinner, we did not go to the concert afterward. Correction A: We joined the group for dinner; however, we did not go to the concert afterward. Correction B: We joined the group for dinner. However, we did not go to the concert afterward.
  • 14. Correct Run-ons and Comma Splices:5. Use Subordination: Run-on: The mother cat cleaned her kittens they began to cry. Comma Splice: The mother cat cleaned her kittens, they began to cry. Correction A: The mother cat cleaned her kittens when they began to cry. Correction B: When they began to cry, the mother cat cleaned her kittens.
  • 15. Exercise Your Muscles:Identify whether the following items contain either a fragment, run-on, or comma splice:1. Although he had promised that he would.2. Here comes Mr. Timmons, he’ll tell us where the lecture is being given.3. Making it impossible for us to see the road.4. I love to relax on the sandy shore of Padre Island it gives me a sense of peace.
  • 16. Congratulations!You have successfully completed Obstacle Course: Fragments, Run-ons and Comma Splices of Grammar Boot Camp.
  • 17. Q: What is a Dependent Clause?A: A dependent clause is a group of related words containing a subject and a verb; it does not, however, contain a complete thought. Thus, it cannot stand alone. For more information on dependent clauses, sign up for Building Muscle: Phrases and Clauses of Grammar Boot Camp.Return to presentation.
  • 18. Q: What is a Subordinating Conjunction?A: A subordinating conjunction is a word that links sentence elements that are not of equal importance. The following is a list of common subordinating conjunctions: after once until although since when as that whenever because though where before till wherever if unless whileReturn to presentation.
  • 19. Q: What is a Relative Pronoun?A: A relative pronoun is a word that relates the dependent clause to the independent clause within a sentence. The following is a list of relative pronouns: who whoever what whatever that whom whomever whose whichever whichReturn to presentation.
  • 20. Q: What is an Independent Clause?A: An independent clause is a group of related words containing a subject, a verb, and a complete thought. For more information on independent clauses, sign up for Building Muscle: Phrases and Clauses of Grammar Boot Camp.Return to presentation.
  • 21. Q: What is a Coordinating Conjunction?A: A coordinating conjunction joins independent clauses as well as other sentence elements of equal weight or function. The following is a list of coordinating conjunctions, commonly referred to as the “FANBOYS”: for and nor but FANBOYS (taken from the first letter of each word) or yet soReturn to presentation.
  • 22. Q: What is a Conjunctive Adverb?A: A conjunctive adverb indicates a relation between independent clauses. The following is a list of common conjunctive adverbs: accordingly consequently indeed also finally instead anyway furthermore likewise as a result hence meanwhile besides however moreover certainly incidentally neverthelessReturn to presentation.
  • 23. Q: What is a Subordinating Conjunction?A: A subordinating conjunction is a word that links sentence elements that are not of equal importance. The following is a list of common subordinating conjunctions: after once until although since when as that whenever because though where before till wherever if unless whileReturn to presentation.