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  • 1. Chapter 11 – Millennium Development Goals
    HH330 – Unit 4 – AoS1
  • 2. Key Knowledge
    Key Knowledge Addressed this Chapter and the Next SAC:
    The eight UN’s Millennium Development Goals, their purpose and the reasons whythey are important;
    The interrelationships between health, human development and sustainability toproduce sustainable human development in a global context.
  • 3. Key Skills
    Key Skilss Addressed this Chapter and the Next SAC:
    Describe the eight Millinnium Development Goals, their purpose and reasons why they are important;
    Evaluate the progress towards the Millennium Development Goals;
    Analyse in different scenarios the interrelationships between health, human development and sustainability.
  • 4. Human Development
    Explore The Concept Further
  • 5. 5
    Human development
    -> Creating an environment in which people can:
    • develop to their full potential
    • 6. lead productive, creative lives in accordance with their needs and interests
    ->Expanding people’s choices and enhancing capabilities through:
    • increased participation in community life and decision-making
    • 7. access to knowledge
    • 8. standards in living and health
  • 6
    Sustainability
    -> Meeting the needs of the present without compromising
    the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
    Sustainable human development…
    …is a process of people striving to achieve their full potential, lead productive lives, expand their choices and meet their needs without compromising the opportunities for future generations
  • 9. Objectives of Sustainable Human Development
  • 10. 8
    The interrelationships between health, human development and sustainability to produce sustainable human development
  • 11. Calculating Human Development Index
  • 12. The United Nations Millennium Goals
  • 13.
  • 14. 12
    Millennium Development Goals
    Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    Targets (purpose)
    • Halve the proportion of people living on less than US$1 a day (between 1990 and 2015)
    • 15. Halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger (between 1990 and 2015)
    Reason for the goal
    A child born in a developing country has a 4 in 10 chance of being born into poverty which decreases their access to resources and increases the risks to their health.
  • 16. 13
    Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
    Targets (purpose)
    • Ensure that (by 2015) children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary school
    Reason for the goal
    There is a correlation between education levels and sustainable human development. Education is vital for improved health outcomes.
  • 17. 14
    Cambridge University Press © Goodacre, Collins and Slattery 2010
    Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women
    Targets (purpose)
    • Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education (preferably by 2005) and in all levels of education (by 2015)
    Reason for the goal
    Women account for two-thirds of the world’s working hours but only earn 10% of the worlds income. 75% of the children not in school are female. Gender equality in education is needed to promote the health of women.
  • 18. 15
    Goal 4: Reduce childhood mortality
    Targets (purpose)
    • Reduce the under-5 mortality rate by two thirds (between 1990 and 2015)
    Reason for the goal
    In developing countries 15% of children will not reach their fifth birthday and simple interventions such as vaccination and clean water can save the lives of millions.
  • 19. 16
    Cambridge University Press © Goodacre, Collins and Slattery 2010
    Goal 5: Improve maternal health
    Targets (purpose)
    • Reduce the maternal mortality rate by three quarters (between 1990 and 2015)
    Reason for the goal
    Each year 500,000 women in developing countries die from pregnancy related complications. In the sub-Saharan African region the risk of a woman dying due to pregnancy in 1 in 16 and most of these deaths are preventable.
  • 20. 17
    Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
    Targets (purpose)
    • Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS, malaria and other major diseases (by 2015)
    Reason for the goal
    AIDS has orphaned more than 15 million children. The highest infection rates is among those aged 15-49 during their working years, so it also contributes to poverty. Malaria is a leading cause of child mortality yet it is highly preventable with simple measures.
  • 21. 18
    Goal 7: Ensure environmental stability
    Targets (purpose)
    • Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs, and reverse the loss of environmental resources
    • 22. Halve the proportion of people without sustainable access to clean drinking water and basic sanitation (by 2015)
    • 23. Achieve a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers (by 2020)
    Reason for the goal
    Overcrowding is an issue among the urban poor and 20% of the world’s population do not have access to sufficient safe water and 2.4 billion people lack access to sanitation.
  • 24. 19
    Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development
    Summary of targets (purpose)
    • Relieve debt in developing countries and make debt sustainable in the long term
    • 25. Provide non-discriminatory training in governance, development and poverty reduction
    • 26. Develop and implement productive work for youth.
    • 27. Provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries.
    • 28. Make new technologies available, especially information and communication (internet).
    • 29. Address the needs of landlocked developing countries & small island states.
    CONTINUED…
  • 30. Activity 11.4
    Sustainable Human Development
  • 31. 1. Define deforestation.
    Deforestation is the process of removing trees or clearing a forest.
  • 32. 2. What are the long-term effects of deforestation on:
    The environment?
    Deforestation causes soil erosion that leads to degradation of farm land and devastation from floods.
     Health of individuals and communities?
    Local livelihood is affected through being unable to grow new crops, which also means it affects nutrition through having no food from the crops to eat or to sell to buy other nutritious foods.
  • 33. 3. Why is deforestation an issue of sustainability?
    Deforestation is an issue of sustainability because the needs of the present are overshadowing the needs of the future, in terms of planting trees to replace those removed, to continue the cycle of the forest and the health of the land. The need for the trees is too urgent today for tomorrow to be considered.
  • 34. 4. Explain how the provision of fast-growing fruit trees can have a positive impact on health.
    Possible reasons why fast-growing fruit trees can have a positive impact on health are;
    Being a nutritious food source
    Being harvested and sold to provide income and to buy more nutritious food
    To keep the soil healthy and fertile for continued crops
  • 35. 5. Describe how these fruit trees will have an impact on human development.
     The fruit tress will have an impact on human development because training and education in a variety of environmental care methods will be offered along with provision of the seedlings.
    This training will empower the people and enable them to make a fresh start, but better equipped and able to break the cycle of poverty, lack of education and lack of sustainability.
    They will have the means to earn income for themselves, eat a healthy diet and be well enough to continue the cycle, stretching it across the broader community.
  • 36. 6. Discuss the elements of this strategy that make it a sustainable solution for human development and global health.
    Improving land stewardship
    Bettering local livelihoods
    Local livelihoods mean better income
    Better income means better nutrition
    Better nutrition means better health
    Better health means a more productive community
    A more productive community means wider implementation of new agricultural skills
    Better health, more adequate health care and education about health care, including better nutrition
    All these factors will lead to implementation of practises for the community for the future not just the present
  • 37. 7. ‘Health, human development and sustainability are all interconnected.’ Discuss this statement.
    Some points to consider when discussing the statement ‘health human development and sustainability are all interconnected’ may be;
    Good health enables communities to better work at conserving and replacing resources for the future
    Healthier individuals will be able to put more time into education and training which is the foundation for a strong, functioning community that is self sufficient and better equipped to plan for the future
    Sustainability, once put into practise, will keep soil and crops healthier and more abundant for today and tomorrow, positively impacting on income, health status and education
  • 38. 8. Describe another sustainable strategy that focuses on improving global health and development
    Other sustainable strategies that focus on improving global health and development are;
    Teaching good governance using non discriminatory, open, rule based training and implement financial systems to aid in self reliance for communities
    Increase debt relief for the least developed countries and increase development assistance, both financial and with practical education to promote sustainability
    Address the special needs of each developing country and involve local communities in developing plans for recovery and sustainability
    Co-operating with developing countries on education and employment programs for young people and women to boost the economy and promote sustainability, good health through better nutrition due to income enabling a higher standard of care
  • 39. Chapter Summary Questions
    Chapter 11
  • 40. 1. Define the term sustainability
     Sustainability means to provide resources adequately for the community in the present but also focusing on and ensuring resources are available in the future.
  • 41. 2. Define sustainable human development.
     Sustainable human development is a process of people striving to achieve their full potential, lead more productive lives, expand their choices and meet their needs without compromising the opportunities for future generations to meet their own needs.
  • 42. 3. Explain how the Human Development Index measures human development.
     The Human Development Index measures human development by providing a statistical assessment ranking of a country’s achievements based on the three basic aspects of human development – health, knowledge and standard of living.
    Health – measured by life expectancy at birth
    Knowledge – measured adult literacy at the primary, secondary and tertiary level
    Standard of living – using Gross Domestic Product (PPP $US [purchasing power parity])
  • 43. 4. Discuss the purpose of the Millennium Development Goals.
     The purpose of the Millennium Development Goals is to address and achieve goals by 2015 which need to be met on a global scale for developing countries to achieve sustainable human development.
  • 44. 5. Summarise each goal.
    Each Millennium Development Goal may be summarised as follows:
     1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger –
    By 2015 halve the proportion of people whose income is less than US $1 a day.
     2. Achieve universal primary education –
    Ensure that children everywhere, boys and girls, will be able to complete primary school.
     3. Promote gender equality and empower women –
    Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education by 2015.
     4. Reduce child mortality –
    Reduce the under-5 mortality rate by two thirds by 2015.
     5. Improve maternal health –
    Reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters
  • 45. 5. Summarise each goal.
    6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases –
    Begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS
    Begin to reverse the spread of malaria and other diseases by 2015.
     7. Ensure environmental stability –
    Reverse the loss of environmental resources and introduce environmental sustainability
    Increase access to clean drinking water and sanitation
    To have achieved by 2020 a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers.
    •  8. Develop a global partnership for development –
    • 46. Debt relief for developing countries
    • 47. Non discriminatory training in good governance, development and poverty reduction.
    • 48. Address the needs of landlocked developing countries and small island states.
    • 49. Make debt sustainable in the long term.
    • 50. Develop and implement productive work for youth
    • 51. Provide access to affordable, essential drugs in developing countries
    • 52. Make new technologies available, especially information and communication (internet).
  •  6. Select one of the MDGs and explain how it will improve health and sustainable human development.
    Responses will vary. A sample answer using the MDG of improving maternal health could be:
    Education on the dangers of pregnancy at a young age
    Programme for free treatment of obstetric fistula
    Infant and maternal health care centres to be accessible to more people for regular checks, health screening and education on pregnancy, childbirth, Infant health and birth control.
    Lobbying for strict penalties for marrying or having sexual contact with young women.
    Wider access to adequate midwifery and maternity support services.
    Education about better nutrition for mothers who will in turn teach their families.
  • 53.  6. Select one of the MDGs and explain how it will improve health and sustainable human development.
    Responses will vary. A sample answer using the MDG of improving maternal health could be:
    Education on the dangers of pregnancy at a young age
    Programme for free treatment of obstetric fistula
    Infant and maternal health care centres to be accessible to more people for regular checks, health screening and education on pregnancy, childbirth, Infant health and birth control.
    Lobbying for strict penalties for marrying or having sexual contact with young women.
    Wider access to adequate midwifery and maternity support services.
    Education about better nutrition for mothers who will in turn teach their families.
  • 54.  7. Develop a strategy that could be used to improve the equity of women in developing countries.
     Increased access to education for women and small business loans could improve the equity of women in developing countries.
    Starting a small business could increase income which would improve nutrition and access to medical care as well as giving women more independence and help with leadership skills.
    They would be able to learn how to look after themselves and their children and also teach their children how to me more self reliant and possibly break the poverty cycle.
  • 55.  8. Evaluate the impact of adequate nutrition as an example to show the interrelationship between health, human development and sustainability.
    Adequate nutrition will have a large impact on the interrelationship between health, human development and sustainability because:
    better nutrition will improve health
    for access to better nutrition sustainable crops must be introduced to improve the current situation of poverty as well and ensuring there will be resources available for the future.
    good nutrition will help people in their working lives due to increase feeling of wellbeing and physical fitness.
    generating more income will enable access to more adequate healthcare, better nutrition for family and community
    sustainable crops require people to work them, generating employment.
    increase in income enables children to attend school as they are not needed to go ot and work to generate income.
    education leads to knowledge of good nutrition, sanitation and clean drinking water.
    sanitation and clean drinking water programs can be implemented in the community due to the increased standard of living through employment, sustainable crops and improved health status.
  • 56.  9. Explain how developed countries can support developing countries to achieve the targets set by the MDGs.
    Developed countries ca support developing countries to achieve the targets set by the MDGs by doing the following:
     Debt relief
    Reduced taxes for more affordable trade
    Education about sustainable living, sanitation, clean drinking water and adequate health care
  • 57.  10. Create a mind map or summary map to demonstrate your understanding of the interrelationships between health, human development and sustainability, using sustainable human development as your starting point.