5. principles of training

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Quick review of Training Principle Definitions

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5. principles of training

  1. 1. PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING 2
  2. 2. TRAINING PRINCIPLES Individuality  Overload Specificity Reversibility Variation Recovery Periodisation
  3. 3. INDIVIDUALITY Individuals may be predisposed to a particular component of fitness without training: strength, power, speed, endurance, flexibility, agility, balance. Individuals may respond at different rates to various types of training. Some athletes may have a greater recovery time than others. Some athletes may have a greater tolerance to training than others. THEREFORE, INDIVIDUAL PROGRAMS.
  4. 4. Therefore training programs must be written to suit the individual! YOU!
  5. 5. OVERLOAD To get a continual adaptation, training VOLUME (FREQUENCY or DURATION) or INTENSITY should be gradually increased to force to body to respond to stimuli. A solid, biomechanically correct base must be established first. Even the best training program can cause injury.
  6. 6. Overload Training should commence slowly No sudden increases 10% per week (rough estimate) Cycle hard & easy sessions 48-72 hours between hard sessions
  7. 7. PERIODISATION Training plans/programs need to be divided into smaller phases. Typically the training year has three phases: Transition or off season phase. Preparatory or pre-season phase. Competitive or in-season phase. Each of these phases can be further divided into: macrocycles (6 weeks). microcycles (1 week). The training year should have manageable and measurable short term goals. Cycle macro and micro cycles - eg. Strength, speed, power, recovery. Cycle easy and hard training sessions by varying the volume, intensity and rest.
  8. 8. PERIODISATION
  9. 9. PERIODISATION
  10. 10. SPECIFICITY Training should mimic competition demands: movement and energy systems components of fitness intensity and work interval non-specific carry over effects mental rehearsal and practice
  11. 11. REVERSIBILITY  "Use it or lose it" Adaptation works in both directions Strength Vs endurance  Obtain, Maintain or Re-gain.
  12. 12. VARIATION Provide variety in training programs/task s to maintain interest and motivation.
  13. 13. RECOVERY  Training programs must allow for adequate recovery time.  Hard sessions should be followed by enough recovery time to allow the body to repair any damage and adapt.  Not enough recovery can lead to a reduced rate of improvement and injury.
  14. 14. PASSIVE RECOVERY No physical activity at all  during rest period.  Suitable for low volume exercise and very low intensity exercise.
  15. 15. ACTIVE RECOVERY  Very low intensity exercise during recovery period eg. Walking, light jog, spinning on bike..)  Helps keep blood pumping so fresh blood can clear the muscles of lactic acid and provide more oxygen and glycogen for quicker recovery.  Essential for high volume exercise of moderate to high intensity.
  16. 16. RECOVERY (CONT’D)  Massage between light sets is beneficial in the removal of lactic acid.  Mild stretching between heavy sets will allow for more complete contractions in the following sets.  Extending the between set recovery time is the most effective method of getting the same total reps in each set.

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