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  1. 1. The Trojan War<br />
  2. 2. The Trojan War<br />The Trojan War actually occurred: The city of Troy fell into the hands of the Greeks.<br />Archaeologists have found historical evidence of the war. <br />Was it exactly as told in The Iliad?<br />No. It was probably fought over commerce and trade between Greece and Asia Minor.<br />But Homer’s version (The Iliad) is more exciting!<br />Some of the characters may have been based on real personalities.<br />
  3. 3. What’s a Trojan?<br />A person from Troy<br />One who shows qualities like those of the soldiers who defended ancient Troy: endurance, toughness, determined energy<br />
  4. 4. Where’s Troy?<br />Troy is across the Aegean Sea from Greece.<br />Troy was also called Ilium, Ilion, and Ilios.<br />A well-walled city with broad streets and beautiful palaces…until the Trojan War.<br />
  5. 5. When?<br />The beginning of the 12th century B.C.<br />1193 – 1184 B.C.<br />That’s 3,200 years ago!<br />B.C. = Before Christ<br />A.D. = Anno Domini (The Year of Our Lord)<br />
  6. 6. Who?<br />Greeks (Achaeans)<br />Achilles<br />Greatest Greek Warrior<br />King Agamemnon<br />Nestor<br />Odysseus<br />Patroclus<br />Menelaus<br />Helen’s Husband<br />Trojans<br />Hector<br />Greatest Trojan Warrior<br />King Priam<br />Father of Hector<br />Aeneas<br />Paris<br />Helen’s Abductor<br />
  7. 7. With whom did the gods side?<br />Greeks<br />Hera<br />Poseidon<br />Hermes<br />Athena<br />Trojans<br />Artemis<br />Ares<br />Apollo<br />Aphrodite<br />Zeus tries to remain neutral, but he shows empathy for Priam and Hector (Trojans).<br />
  8. 8. How did it start?<br />Eris, goddess of discord, was not invited to a wedding banquet on Mt. Olympus.<br />Into the banquet hall, Eris tossed a golden apple inscribed “For the Fairest.”<br />Athena, Hera, and Aphrodite asked Zeus to decide who deserved the apple.<br />Zeus would not choose. (He’s no fool!)<br />Zeus says Paris is an excellent judge of beauty, and refers the goddesses to him.<br />
  9. 9. The Judgment of Paris<br />Paris was the son of King Priam of Troy.<br />He was rather weak and cowardly.<br />Priam had sent him away from Troy because an oracle prophesied that he would be the ruin of the city.<br />When the goddesses appeared to him, they each offered him a bribe:<br />Athena would make him a great warrior.<br />Hera would make him ruler of Europe and Asia.<br />Aphrodite would give him the most beautiful woman in the world.<br />
  10. 10. Whom did he choose?<br />Paris gave the apple to Aphrodite.<br />She then took Paris to Helen, the most beautiful woman in the world.<br />Hera and Athena, however, vowed revenge.<br />
  11. 11. Helen<br />Helen was a daughter of Zeus.<br />She was the wife of Menelaus.<br />Menelaus was the brother of the Greek King, Agamemnon.<br />See the problem?<br />
  12. 12. Paris takes Helen<br />
  13. 13. The Greeks Respond<br />Menelaus asks all of Greece to help.<br />Greek armies set off across the sea to lay siege to Troy and leave it in ashes.<br />And so begins the Trojan War.<br />Helen is often referred to as “The Face that Launched a Thousand Ships.”<br />
  14. 14. Odysseus and Achilles Join Late<br />Odysseus didn’t want to fight for Helen.<br />He thought her a faithless woman.<br />He did not want to leave his home (Ithaca).<br />Achilles was kept back by his mother.<br />Thetis was a sea nymph who knew he was fated to die in Troy.<br />She had dipped him in the river Styx to try and give him immortality. (She held him by the heel.)<br />Both of these great Greek warriors were later called (forced) into battle where they played important roles in many battles.<br />
  15. 15. The Battle Rages<br />Due to the influence of various gods and goddesses, the war went back and forth for many years.<br />For details of the war, read the epic poem by Homer called The Iliad, a word which means “a series of disastrous events.”<br />
  16. 16. Agamemnon <br />Leader of all Greek forces during Trojan War<br />Sacrificed his daughter (Iphegenia) to Artemis in order to get favorable winds for the ships to sail to Troy<br />Offended Achilles by taking his “prize” (a girl named Briseis) after one battle<br />
  17. 17. Achilles Pouts<br />Because Agamemnon offended him, Achilles refused to fight.<br />Then things went badly for the Greeks, and they begged him to return.<br />He allowed his friend Patroclus to fight in his place, wearing his armor.<br />Patroclus is killed by Hector (who thought it was Achilles).<br />
  18. 18. Achilles Returns<br />Enraged over the death of Patroclus, Achilles returns to battle.<br />His mother procures for him some new armor (made by Hephaestus).<br />He kills Hector and desecrates the body.<br />
  19. 19. Achilles Relents<br />King Priam sneaks into the Greek camp and begs Achilles to give him Hector’s body so that his son may have proper funeral rites.<br />Achilles allows Priam to take the body.<br />After Hector’s death, Achilles does not have long to live.<br />
  20. 20. The Death of Achilles<br />Achilles was unconquerable by mortal men, but Apollo stepped in.<br />Apollo guided Paris’s arrow into the only weak spot Achilles had: his heel.<br />Achilles dies from the wound.<br />The remaining Greeks decide his divine armor should go to the bravest remaining warrior.<br />
  21. 21. Odysseus Wins<br />Odysseus makes a speech explaining why he deserves it, and he is awarded the armor of Achilles.<br />He then devises the final plan to end the Trojan War.<br />
  22. 22. The Trojan Horse<br />The Greeks pretend to retreat, leaving behind a large wooden horse.<br />The Trojans, in celebration, drag the horse inside their city as a war prize.<br />
  23. 23. The Trojan Horse<br />Odysseus and many other Greek warriors are hiding inside the horse.<br />
  24. 24. The Fall of Troy<br />They wait until the Trojans are asleep, and then they come out and slaughter them.<br />The Trojan War is ended.<br />The Greeks won.<br />The Trojans lost.<br />Odysseus is the greatest hero remaining alive…but now he has to get home…<br />
  25. 25. The Odyssey Begins…<br />The story of The Odyssey is about Odysseus’ journey home (to Ithaca) after the Trojan War.<br />It’s quite a journey!<br />
  26. 26. Sources<br />Graphics in this presentation were taken from the following web sites:<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />This presentation is for educational purposes only; it has not been and should not be sold or used as a vehicle to make money.<br />