Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Understanding chemotherapy
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Understanding chemotherapy

1,449
views

Published on

guide for cares of children on chemotherapy

guide for cares of children on chemotherapy


1 Comment
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,449
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
1
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. UNDERSTANDING CHEMOTHERAPY Managing Side Effects by MARIA SUGA A. DIOKO, MD
  • 2. What is Cancer?
    • CANCER: A disease of the body’s cells
    • Normal: body constantly making new cells- to enable us to grow , to replace worn out cells or to heal damaged cells after an injury
    • Cells grow uncontrolled- tumor/leukemias
  • 3. Treatment of Cancer
    • Surgery
    • Chemotherapy
    • Radiotherapy
  • 4. Chemotherapy
    • Use of drugs to kill or slow the growth of cancer cells
    • Many different types of chemotherapy drugs
    • Commonly used drugs in ALL
      • Prednisone
      • Vincristine
      • Doxorubicin
      • L-asparaginase
      • Cytarabine
      • Cyclophosphamide
      • Methotrexate
      • 6 mercaptopurine
  • 5. Why have chemotherapy?
    • Cure
      • Sometimes in combination with surgery and radiotherapy
    • Adjuvant
      • To make the cancer smaller so the other treatment can be more effective
    • Palliative
      • Relief of symptoms
      • For people with advanced cancer who cannot be cured but want to live comfortable and without undue pain
  • 6. How chemotherapy works
    • Stop cancer cells from growing and multiplying
    • Affects also normal cells that multiply rapidly – hair cells, cells lining the mouth and blood cells
  • 7. Fear of Chemotherapy
    • Natural to be worried
    • Terrible stories
    • BUT!!!
    • Everyone is different and reacts differently to chemotherapy
    • Tailored therapy
  • 8. How chemotherapy is given
    • Intravenous
    • By mouth (tablets
    • Injection into a muscle (IM)
    • Injection under the skin (SQ)
    • Injection into the fluid around the spine (IT)
  • 9. Intrathecal Chemotherapy
  • 10. Does it hurt?
    • IV chemotherapy- Like having blood taken
    • It should not hurt after the initial injection
  • 11. Chemotherapy is time consuming
    • Waiting and waiting
    • Read a book or magazine
    • Listen to music
    • Talk to a companion
    • Write in a journal
    • Do crafts
  • 12. Managing Side Effects
    • Most important effect of chemotherapy: it kills cancer cells
    • Can also affect normal cells - cause unwanted side effects
    • Usually start during the first few weeks of treatment
    • Most can be managed and go away in time
  • 13. Side Effects of Chemotherapy
    • Vary greatly
    • Some will have no side effects
    • Complimentary/Alternative medicine?
  • 14. Common Side Effects of Chemotherapy
    • Feeling tired and lacking energy
    • Feeling sick or vomiting
    • Constipation or diarrhea
    • Mouth sores
    • Hair loss and scalp problems
    • Itchy skin and other skin problems
    • Nerve and muscle effects
    • Change in hearing
    • Effects on the blood and immune system
    • Fertility problems
  • 15. Feeling tired and lacking energy
    • Exhausted, tired, sleepy, drowsy, confused, impatient
    • TIPS:
      • Plan your day
      • Save energy. Don’t do more than you can comfortably do
      • Take short naps or breaks
      • Take short walks or do light exercise
      • Let other people help you
  • 16. Feeling sick or vomiting
    • Not everyone
    • Usually starts a few hours after treatment and may last many hours
    • If continues for a few days – go to your doctor
    • Changes to eating pattern
  • 17. Feeling sick or vomiting
    • TIPS
      • Eat a light meal before the treatment
      • Drink small but frequent fluids.
      • Small but frequent food
      • Avoid food that usually upset stomach
      • Eat slowly and chew well
  • 18. Feeling sick or vomiting
    • TIPS
      • Jellies, weak tea, fresh fruit juices, ice cubes
      • Eat dry toast or crackers
      • Avoid odors – cooking smell, perfume, alcohol
    X
  • 19. Feeling sick or vomiting
    • Don’t do anything strenuous after a meal
    • Elevate head after eating
    • Try breathing thru the mouth when you feel sick
    • Ask for medications
    • Let your child wear loose clothing
    • Bring plastic bags
    • Use distractions – TV, music, games
  • 20. Constipation
    • Eat more high-fibre foods such as wholegrain bread and pasta, fruit and vegetables
    • Drink plenty of fluids
    • Get some light exercise
    • Eat small, frequent snacks instead of big meals
  • 21. Diarrhea
    • May need admission
    • Drink plenty of fluids
    • Take: clear broth and toast, biscuits and cheese or cooked rice
    • Avoid: spicy foods, fatty or fried foods, rich gravies and sauces, raw fruit or vegetables with skins or seeds
    X
  • 22. Mouth Sores
    • Soft toothbrush.
    • Mouthwash without alcohol
    • Gargle 4 x a day: 1 teaspoon of salt + 1 glass of water
    • Dry mouth: Sip fluids, eat soft foods, blend food, soups, ice cream, moisten foods with butter
  • 23. Hair Loss and Scalp Problems
    • Varies from person to person
    • Usually starts 2 to 3 weeks after the first treatment
    • Wear a wig or a scarf
  • 24. Hair Loss and Scalp Problems
    • Keep it clean
    • Use mild shampoo – baby shampoo
    • Comb using a large comb or brush with soft bristles
    • Use hat or scarf to protect head from the sun
    • Use cotton pillowcase
    • Avoid hair perms and dyes
    • Limit use of dryers
  • 25. Hair Loss and Scalp Problems
    • Emphasize that it temporary and that it will grow back
    • Hair loss is quite variable
    • Separate your feelings from your child’s
    • Let it okay to be bald
  • 26. Itchy skin and other skin problems
    • Skin may darken, peel or become dry and itchy
    • May be sensitive to the sun
    • Protect your skin from the sun
    • Dust cornflour over the itchy part
    • Use lotion or cream to stop the dryness
  • 27. Effects on the Immune Blood and Immune System
    • The bone marrow makes 3 kinds of blood cells
      • White blood cells
      • Red blood cells
      • Platelets
    • Chemotherapy can lower your blood count
      • Infection
      • Bleeding
      • Anemia
  • 28. What is ANC?
    • This provides an indication of the child’s ability to fight infection
    • To get ANC, multiply percentage of neutrophils by the total WBC
    • Example
      • Total WBC = 1000
      • Neutrophils = 50%
      • ANC = 500
  • 29. How to protect the child with a low ANC?
    • Thorough hand washing for every member of the family
    • Make sure all medical personnel wash their hands before touching your child
    • Keep child’s diaper area clean and dry
    • Whenever your child needs a needle stick, make sure the technician cleans the skin thoroughly with alcohol
  • 30. How to protect the child with a low ANC?
    • Small cuts – wash with soap and water and rinse with hydrogen peroxide
    • No rectal thermometers, no rectal suppositories
    • No routine immunizations
    • Siblings should not be give live vaccines
    X
  • 31. Urgent!
      • Fever over 38 C or chills
      • Sweating esp at night
      • Easy bruising or any unusual bleeding
      • Sore throat
      • Mouth ulcers
      • Persistent or severe vomiting more than 24 hours after treatment
  • 32. Urgent!
      • Severe constipation, diarrhea or abdominal pain
      • Burning or stinging on passing urine
      • Tenderness, redness, or swelling in the injection site
      • Any unexpected side effects of sudden deterioration in health
  • 33. Thank You