<ul><li>Imagine that an alien ship has landed in your community. You are captured and transported to a place unlike anything that you have ever experienced. You don’t understand anything about their geography or culture. You are enslaved. You think about escaping. Make a list of possible obstacles that you would face if you decided to actually attempt an escape. </li></ul>
Slaves Picking Cotton on a Mississippi Plantation
A. Slaves were responsible for clearing land and planting and harvesting crops. An African-American woman is shown here balancing a basket of cotton on her head on a farm in Augusta, Georgia. (1870)
Poster announcing a slave auction in Virginia, USA, 1823
The Missouri Compromise <ul><li>Approved in 1820; Maine entered the Union as a free state, and Missouri entered as a slave state </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibited slavery north of 36°20' latitude (the southern border of Missouri), and included Louisiana Territory lands west of Missouri </li></ul><ul><li>Temporarily solved slavery controversy between the states </li></ul>
<ul><li>A. The Fugitive Slave Act was part of the group of laws referred to as the “Compromise of 1850” </li></ul>Source: The Nystrom Atlas of United States History
<ul><li>B. In this compromise, California became a free state and the slave trade, but not slavery itself, was abolished in the District of Columbia </li></ul><ul><li>C. Slavery was allowed in the newly organized territories of Utah and New Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>D. A new Fugitive Slave Act increased penalties for assisting runaway slaves </li></ul>
Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 <ul><li>A. Required all citizens to aid in the capture of runaway slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Any person caught helping a fugitive slave could be fined a $1,000 dollars and put in jail for 6 months. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Northerners, especially abolitionists strongly opposed the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 . </li></ul>
An iron mask with hooks around the neck to stop slaves running away or resting. The mask also stops the slaves from eating or drinking due to a flat piece of metal which goes into the mouth. The shackles and spurs would also have made it difficult for captured slaves to run away.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin- 1852 book <ul><li>A. Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe </li></ul><ul><li>B. Was a novel that showed the evils of slavery and the injustices of the Fugitive Slave Law. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Thousands of copies sold- changed the way northerners looked at slavery. They now saw slavery as a moral issue not a political issue. </li></ul>
Kansas-Nebraska Act- 1854 <ul><li>A . P roposed that slavery in the Kansas territory was to be determined by popular sovereignty. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Northerners were outraged because in effect it repealed the Missouri Compromise. </li></ul>
Dred Scott V. Sanford (1857) <ul><li>A. Scott was a slave from Missouri. His master had taken him to Illinois where abolitionists helped him sue for his freedom because slavery was illegal in Illinois. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Chief Justice Roger Taney decides the case: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Scott could not file a lawsuit because he was not a person, he was property. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Congress did not have the power to outlaw slavery in any territory!! </li></ul>
Resisting Slavery A. Many slaves tried to escape to the North. Few were successful.
Nat Turner’s Rebellion <ul><li>A. 1831: Nat Turner and six fellow slaves launched a slave rebellion. </li></ul><ul><li>B. They killed 57 whites before Turner was captured and executed. (Hanged) </li></ul><ul><li>C. As a result of this rebellion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Southerners tightened restrictions on slaves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Southerners lashed out at abolitionists, blaming them for Turner’s actions. </li></ul></ul>
THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD <ul><li>A. This was a movement to help escaped slaves make their way from the slave-owning southern states up through the northern states, and eventually into Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>B. This was accomplished by secretly transporting slaves from one safe house to another, steadily moving north until freedom was secured. </li></ul>
<ul><li>C. The Underground Railroad became even more active once the Fugitive Slave Act was passed. </li></ul>Harriett Tubman Source: http://www.mdslavery.net/html/flight/freeindex.html
Quilt Patterns as Secret Messages The Monkey Wrench pattern, on the left, alerted escapees to gather up tools and prepare to flee; the Drunkard Path design, on the right, warned escapees not to follow a straight route .
Slave Codes <ul><li>D. Took away nearly all rights of slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves could not carry weapons, make any contact with white people </li></ul><ul><li>People who tried to teach people of color were punished; slaves could not work any job involving reading and writing </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves had little time to talk together </li></ul>
Follow the Drinking Gourd Discussion Questions <ul><li>How would the Underground Railroad been different for the slaves had there been no volunteers willing to help out? </li></ul><ul><li>What did the volunteers have to risk by helping out? If you lived in that time period, would you have been willing to risk everything to help people escape slavery? </li></ul><ul><li>How would escaping slaves hide out during the day and what risks did they face in the daytime? </li></ul><ul><li>How would escaping slaves find or receive food? </li></ul><ul><li>How would changes to the weather or geographical land changes affect slave travel? </li></ul><ul><li>What advantages and disadvantages would slaves have by traveling at night? </li></ul>