Tour of the Cell 2 2010-2011
Cells gotta work to live!  <ul><li>What jobs do cells have to do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>make proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Making Energy 2010-2011 ATP
Cells need power!  <ul><li>Making energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>take in food & digest it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>take in...
Lysosomes <ul><li>Function  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>little “stomach” of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>digests macr...
Lysosomes  white blood cells attack & destroy invaders = digest them in lysosomes 1974 Nobel prize: Christian de Duve Lyso...
Cellular digestion <ul><li>Lysosomes fuse with food  vacuoles </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A vacuole is a membrane bound sac ...
Lysosomal enzymes  <ul><li>Lysosomal enzymes work best at pH 5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>organelle creates custom pH </li></ul...
When things go bad…  <ul><li>Diseases of lysosomes are often fatal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>digestive enzyme not working in l...
But sometimes cells need to die… <ul><li>Lysosomes can be used to kill cells when they are supposed to be destroyed </li><...
Fetal development 15 weeks 6 weeks syndactyly
Apoptosis <ul><li>programmed destruction of cells in multi-cellular organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>programmed development...
Making Energy <ul><li>Cells must convert incoming energy to forms that they can use for work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mitocho...
Mitochondria & Chloroplasts <ul><li>Important to see the similarities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transform energy </li></ul></u...
Mitochondria <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cellular respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>generate ATP  </li></u...
Mitochondria <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>smooth outer membrane  </l...
Mitochondria
Membrane-bound Enzymes glucose + oxygen    carbon + water + energy dioxide C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 6CO 2 6H 2 O ATP  + + +
Dividing Mitochondria Who else divides like that? What does this tell us about the evolution of eukaryotes?
Mitochondria <ul><li>Almost all eukaryotic cells have mitochondria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>there may be 1 very large mitocho...
Mitochondria are everywhere!! animal cells plant cells
Chloroplasts <ul><li>Chloroplasts are  plant  organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>class of plant structures =  plastids </li>...
Chloroplasts <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stroma  = internal fluid-fille...
Membrane-bound Enzymes + water + energy    glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide 6CO 2 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 light energy  ...
Chloroplasts <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>photosynthesis   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>generate ATP & synthesize ...
Chloroplasts  <ul><li>Why are chloroplasts green? </li></ul>
 
Mitochondria & chloroplasts are different <ul><li>Organelles not part of  endomembrane  system </li></ul><ul><li>Grow & re...
Endosymbiosis theory <ul><li>Mitochondria & chloroplasts were once free living bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>engulfed by ...
Endosymbiosis theory Evolution of eukaryotes
Compare the equations Photosynthesis Respiration glucose  +  oxygen    carbon  +  water  +  energy dioxide C 6 H 12 O 6 6...
The Great ENERGY Circle of Life sun ATP Photosynthesis Respiration O 2 glucose sugar CO 2 H 2 O + + plants animals & plant...
Food & water storage plant cells central vacuole  contractile vacuole  food vacuoles  animal cells
Vacuoles & vesicles <ul><li>Function  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>little “transfer ships” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food va...
Vacuoles in plants <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stockpiling proteins or ...
Peroxisomes <ul><li>Other digestive enzyme sacs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in both animals & plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
2010-2011 Any Questions??
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  • lysosomes create a space where cell can digest macromolecules safely rupturing a few lysosomes has little impact on a cell (pH of cytosol affects functionality of the lysosomal enzymes), but massive leakage from lysosomes can destroy cell why evolve digestive enzymes which function at pH so different from cytosol? digestive enzymes won’t function well if leak into cytosol = most times don’t want to digest yourself! low pH = acid environment cause oxidation (removing electrons) &amp; promotes hydrolysis
  • Feedback mechanism There are sensors in the cell that monitor growth. They trigger self-destruct when they sense processes. Brown spots on leaves too. Virus infected plant cell auto-destructs and even cells around it to wall off virus.
  • Feedback mechanism There are sensors in the cell that monitor growth. They trigger self-destruct when they sense processes gone awry. Brown spots on leaves too. Virus infected plant cell auto-destructs and even kills cells around it to wall off virus.
  • Lynn Margulis From hypothesis to theory! Paradigm shifting ideas in evolutionary biology.
  • Transcript of "Ch06organelles2"

    1. 1. Tour of the Cell 2 2010-2011
    2. 2. Cells gotta work to live! <ul><li>What jobs do cells have to do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>make proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>proteins control every cell function </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for daily life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make more cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>repair </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>renewal </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Making Energy 2010-2011 ATP
    4. 4. Cells need power! <ul><li>Making energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>take in food & digest it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>take in oxygen (O 2 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>remove waste </li></ul></ul>ATP
    5. 5. Lysosomes <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>little “stomach” of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>digests macromolecules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ clean up crew” of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cleans up broken down organelles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vesicles of digestive enzymes </li></ul></ul>only in animal cells synthesized by rER, transferred to Golgi Where old organelles go to die !
    6. 6. Lysosomes white blood cells attack & destroy invaders = digest them in lysosomes 1974 Nobel prize: Christian de Duve Lysosomes discovery in 1960s 1960 | 1974
    7. 7. Cellular digestion <ul><li>Lysosomes fuse with food vacuoles </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A vacuole is a membrane bound sac used for storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>polymers digested into monomers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pass to cytosol to become nutrients of cell </li></ul></ul></ul>vacuole <ul><li>lyso– = breaking things apart </li></ul><ul><li>– some = body </li></ul>
    8. 8. Lysosomal enzymes <ul><li>Lysosomal enzymes work best at pH 5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>organelle creates custom pH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>proteins in lysosomal membrane pump H + ions from the cytosol into lysosome </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>enzymes are very sensitive to pH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>enzymes are proteins — pH affects structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>why evolve digestive enzymes which function at pH different from cytosol? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>digestive enzymes won’t function well if some leak into cytosol = don’t want to digest yourself! </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. When things go bad… <ul><li>Diseases of lysosomes are often fatal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>digestive enzyme not working in lysosome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>picks up biomolecules, but can’t digest one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lysosomes fill up with undigested material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grow larger & larger until disrupts cell & organ function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lysosomal storage diseases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more than 40 known diseases </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>example : Tay-Sachs disease build up undigested fat in brain cells </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. But sometimes cells need to die… <ul><li>Lysosomes can be used to kill cells when they are supposed to be destroyed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some cells have to die for proper development in an organism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>apoptosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ auto-destruct” process </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lysosomes break open & kill cell </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex : tadpole tail gets re-absorbed when it turns into a frog </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex : loss of webbing between your fingers during fetal development </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Fetal development 15 weeks 6 weeks syndactyly
    12. 12. Apoptosis <ul><li>programmed destruction of cells in multi-cellular organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>programmed development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control of cell growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>example : if cell grows uncontrollably this self-destruct mechanism is triggered to remove damaged cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cancer must over-ride this to enable tumor growth </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Making Energy <ul><li>Cells must convert incoming energy to forms that they can use for work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mitochondria : from glucose to ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chloroplasts : from sunlight to ATP & carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ATP = active energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>carbohydrates = stored energy </li></ul></ul></ul>ATP ATP +
    14. 14. Mitochondria & Chloroplasts <ul><li>Important to see the similarities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transform energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>generate ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>double membranes = 2 membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>semi-autonomous organelles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>move, change shape, divide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>internal ribosomes, DNA & enzymes </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Mitochondria <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cellular respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>generate ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>from breakdown of sugars, fats & other fuels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in the presence of oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>break down larger molecules into smaller to generate energy = catabolism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>generate energy in presence of O 2 = aerobic respiration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Mitochondria <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>smooth outer membrane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>highly folded inner membrane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cristae </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fluid-filled space between 2 membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>internal fluid-filled space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mitochondrial matrix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA, ribosomes & enzymes </li></ul></ul></ul>Why 2 membranes? increase surface area for membrane-bound enzymes that synthesize ATP
    17. 17. Mitochondria
    18. 18. Membrane-bound Enzymes glucose + oxygen  carbon + water + energy dioxide C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 6CO 2 6H 2 O ATP  + + +
    19. 19. Dividing Mitochondria Who else divides like that? What does this tell us about the evolution of eukaryotes?
    20. 20. Mitochondria <ul><li>Almost all eukaryotic cells have mitochondria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>there may be 1 very large mitochondrion or 100s to 1000s of individual mitochondria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number of mitochondria is correlated with aerobic metabolic activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more activity = more energy needed = more mitochondria </li></ul></ul></ul>What cells would have a lot of mitochondria? active cells: • muscle cells • nerve cells
    21. 21. Mitochondria are everywhere!! animal cells plant cells
    22. 22. Chloroplasts <ul><li>Chloroplasts are plant organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>class of plant structures = plastids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>amyloplasts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>store starch in roots & tubers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chromoplasts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>store pigments for fruits & flowers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chloroplasts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>store chlorophyll & function in photosynthesis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in leaves, other green structures of plants & in eukaryotic algae </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Chloroplasts <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stroma = internal fluid-filled space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA, ribosomes & enzymes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>thylakoids = membranous sacs where ATP is made </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>grana = stacks of thylakoids </li></ul></ul></ul>Why internal sac membranes? increase surface area for membrane-bound enzymes that synthesize ATP
    24. 24. Membrane-bound Enzymes + water + energy  glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide 6CO 2 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 light energy  + + +
    25. 25. Chloroplasts <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>generate ATP & synthesize sugars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>transform solar energy into chemical energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>produce sugars from CO 2 & H 2 O </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Semi-autonomous </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>moving, changing shape & dividing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can reproduce by pinching in two </li></ul></ul></ul>Who else divides like that? bacteria!
    26. 26. Chloroplasts <ul><li>Why are chloroplasts green? </li></ul>
    27. 28. Mitochondria & chloroplasts are different <ul><li>Organelles not part of endomembrane system </li></ul><ul><li>Grow & reproduce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>semi-autonomous organelles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proteins primarily from free ribosomes in cytosol & a few from their own ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Own circular chromosome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>directs synthesis of proteins produced by own internal ribosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ribosomes like bacterial ribosomes </li></ul></ul></ul>Who else has a circular chromosome not bound within a nucleus? bacteria
    28. 29. Endosymbiosis theory <ul><li>Mitochondria & chloroplasts were once free living bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>engulfed by ancestral eukaryote </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endosymbiont </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cell that lives within another cell (host) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>as a partnership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>evolutionary advantage for both </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>one supplies energy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the other supplies raw materials & protection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Lynn Margulis U of M, Amherst 1981 | ??
    29. 30. Endosymbiosis theory Evolution of eukaryotes
    30. 31. Compare the equations Photosynthesis Respiration glucose + oxygen  carbon + water + energy dioxide C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 6CO 2 6H 2 O ATP  + + + + water + energy  glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide 6CO 2 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 light energy  + + +
    31. 32. The Great ENERGY Circle of Life sun ATP Photosynthesis Respiration O 2 glucose sugar CO 2 H 2 O + + plants animals & plants ATP
    32. 33. Food & water storage plant cells central vacuole contractile vacuole food vacuoles animal cells
    33. 34. Vacuoles & vesicles <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>little “transfer ships” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food vacuoles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phagocytosis, fuse with lysosomes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contractile vacuoles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in freshwater protists, pump excess H 2 O out of cell </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central vacuoles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in many mature plant cells </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 35. Vacuoles in plants <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stockpiling proteins or inorganic ions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>depositing metabolic byproducts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>storing pigments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>storing defensive compounds against herbivores </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>selective membrane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>control what comes in or goes out </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    35. 36. Peroxisomes <ul><li>Other digestive enzyme sacs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in both animals & plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>breakdown fatty acids to sugars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>easier to transport & use as energy source </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>detoxify cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>detoxifies alcohol & other poisons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>produce peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>must breakdown H 2 O 2  H 2 O </li></ul></ul></ul>
    36. 37. 2010-2011 Any Questions??
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