Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
64 ecology2005
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

64 ecology2005

528

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
528
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
32
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • The J–shaped curve of exponential growth is characteristic of some populations that are introduced into a new or unfilled environment or whose numbers have been drastically reduced by a catastrophic event and are rebounding. The graph illustrates the exponential population growth that occurred in the population of elephants in Kruger National Park, South Africa, after they were protected from hunting. After approximately 60 years of exponential growth, the large number of elephants had caused enough damage to the park vegetation that a collapse in the elephant food supply was likely, leading to an end to population growth through starvation. To protect other species and the park ecosystem before that happened, park managers began limiting the elephant population by using birth control and exporting elephants to other countries.
  • The population doubled to 1 billion within the next two centuries, doubled again to 2 billion between 1850 and 1930, and doubled still again by 1975 to more than 4 billion. The global population now numbers over 6 billion people and is increasing by about 73 million each year. The population grows by approximately 201,000 people each day, the equivalent of adding a city the size of Amarillo, Texas, or Madison, Wisconsin. Every week the population increases by the size of San Antonio, Milwaukee, or Indianapolis. It takes only four years for world population growth to add the equivalent of another United States. Population ecologists predict a population of 7.3–8.4 billion people on Earth by the year 2025.
  • We consume more than just food: water, energy, space/habitat
  • Transcript

    • 1. Bright blue marble floating in space Ecology Chapter 50 Our first power point! Aren't you excited??
    • 2.
      • Ecology
        • The scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment.
      • It is these interactions that determine the distribution of organisms across an area as well as their abundance in that area
      Distribution and abundance of the red kangaroo in Australia
    • 3. Everything links to evolution
      • Ecology & Evolution
        • Darwin proposed that environmental factors interacting with variation within populations could cause evolutionary change.
      • Think about it...
        • If a fox eats a rabbit (predator-prey relationship) then the gene pool of that rabbit population is altered by the loss of that rabbits alleles (microevolution)
    • 4. All Environments Include:
      • Abiotic factors
        • non-living chemical & physical factors
          • temperature
          • light
          • water
          • nutrients
      • Biotic factors
        • living components
          • animals
          • plants
      Both biotic and abiotic factors help determine the distribution and abundance of a species
    • 5. Levels of ecology
      • Biosphere – the broadest unit of study
        • Ecosystems
          • Communities
            • Populations
              • Organisms – the smallest unit of study
    • 6. Dispersal and Distribution
      • How is distribution of organisms limited?
        • Does an organisms environment play a part?
        • Of course it does!
    • 7. Earth’s biomes
    • 8. Marine intertidal coral reef benthos
    • 9. Tropical rainforest distribution : equatorial precipitation : very wet temperature : always warm characteristics : many plants & animals, thin soil
    • 10. Savanna distribution : equatorial precipitation : seasonal, dry season/wet season temperature : always warm characteristics : fire-adapted, drought tolerant plants; herbivores; fertile soil
    • 11. Desert distribution : 30°N & S latitude band precipitation : almost temperature : variable daily & seasonally, hot & cold characteristics : sparse vegetation & animals, cacti, succulents, drought tolerant, reptiles, insects, rodents, birds
    • 12. Temperate Grassland distribution : mid-latitudes, mid-continents precipitation : seasonal, dry season/wet season temperature : cold winters/hot summers characteristics : prairie grasses, fire-adapted, drought tolerant plants; many herbivores; deep, fertile soil
    • 13. Temperate Deciduous Forest distribution : mid-latitude, northern hemisphere precipitation : adequate, summer rains, winter snow temperature : moderate warm summer/cool winter characteristics : many mammals, insects, birds, etc.; deciduous trees; fertile soils
    • 14. Coniferous Forest (Taiga) distribution : high-latitude, northern hemisphere precipitation : adequate to dry (temperate rain forest on coast) temperature : cool year round characteristics : conifers; diverse mammals, birds, insects, etc.
    • 15. Arctic Tundra distribution : arctic, high-latitude, northern hemisphere precipitation : dry temperature : cold year round characteristics : permafrost, lichens & mosses, migrating animals & resident herbivores
    • 16. Alpine Tundra distribution : high elevation at all latitudes precipitation : dry temperature : cold year round characteristics : permafrost, lichens, mosses, grasses; migrating animals & resident herbivores
    • 17. Population Ecology Chapter 52
    • 18. Changes to population size
      • Adding & removing individuals from a population
        • birth
        • death
        • immigration
        • emigration
    • 19. Growth rate
      • Exponential growth
        • characteristic of a population without limiting factors
          • ex. introduced to a new environment
      African elephant protected from hunting Whooping crane coming back from near extinction
    • 20. Carrying capacity
      • Can populations continue to grow exponentially?
        • of course NOT!
        • what sets limit?
          • resources, predators, parasites
      • Carrying Capacity (K)
        • maximum population size that environment can support with no degradation of habitat
          • not fixed; varies with changes in resources
    • 21. Model of growth
      • Decrease in rate of growth as reach carrying capacity
    • 22. Different life strategies
      • K-selection
      • r-selection
      K-selection r-selection mortality constant
    • 23. Reproductive strategies
      • K-strategy
        • have few offspring & invest a lot of energy in raising them to reproductive age
          • primates
          • coconut
      • r-strategy
        • have many offspring & invest little in their survival
          • insects
          • dandelion & other weeds
    • 24. Predator – prey interactions
      • Population cycles
    • 25. Age structure
      • Relative number of individuals of each age
      What do the data imply about population growth in these countries?
    • 26. Human population
      • What factors have contributed to this exponential growth pattern?
      1650  500 million 2005  6 billion Is the human population reaching carrying capacity?
    • 27. Community Ecology Chapter 53
    • 28. Inter-species interactions
      • Symbiotic interactions
        • competition (-/-)
          • compete for limited resource
          • 2 species cannot coexist in a community if their niches are identical
        • predation / parasitism (-/+)
        • mutualism (+/+)
          • lichens (algae & fungus)
        • commensalism (+/0)
          • barnacles attached to whale
    • 29. commensalism (+/0) (+/+) mutualism predation (+/-) competition (-/-)
    • 30. Niche
      • An organism’s niche is its ecological role
      • habitat = address , niche = job
      Resource partitioning
    • 31. Niche & competition
      • Competitive Exclusion
        • No two similar species can occupy the same niche at the same time
    • 32. Predation drives evolution
      • Predators adaptations
        • locate & subdue prey
      • Prey adaptations
        • elude & defend
      spines, thorns, toxins horns, speed, coloration
    • 33. Trophic structure
      • Food chains
        • feeding relationships
        • food chain usually 4 or 5 links = trophic levels
        • length of food chain limited by inefficiency of energy transfer
    • 34. Energy transfer
      • Energy in
        • from the Sun
        • captured by autotrophs = producers (plants)
      • Energy through
        • food chain
          • transfer of energy from autotrophs to heterotrophs (herbivores to carnivores)
          • heterotrophs = consumers
            • herbivores
            • carnivores
    • 35. Energy inefficiency incomplete digestion metabolism
    • 36. Pyramids of production
      • represent the loss of energy from a food chain
        • how much energy is turned into biomass
    • 37. Food webs
      • Food chains are hooked together into food webs
      • Who eats whom?
        • a species may weave into web at more than 1 trophic level
          • bears
          • “ there’s always a bigger fish”
      What limits the length of a food chain?
    • 38. Implications
      • Dynamics of energy through ecosystems have important implications for human populations
        • what food would be more ecologically sound?
    • 39. Disturbances
      • Most communities are in a state of change due to disturbances
        • fire, weather, human activities, etc.
        • not all are negative
    • 40. Disturbances
      • Disturbances are often necessary for community development & survival
    • 41. Ecological cycle
      • fire as part of a natural community cycle
    • 42. Ecological succession
      • The sequence of community changes after a disturbance
        • transition in species composition over ecological time
          • years or decades
      Mt. St. Helens
    • 43. Succession
      • From bare soil, then…
        • bacteria
        • lichens & mosses
        • grasses
        • shrubs
        • trees
      make soil { Change in species mix over time
    • 44. Succession from mosses & lichens = pioneer species to shrubs & trees
    • 45. Climax forest
      • solar energy levels
      • temperature
      • rainfall
      • fertility & depth of soil
      The species mix of climax forest is dependent on the abiotic factors of the region birch, beech, maple, hemlock
    • 46. Ecosystems Chapter 54
    • 47. Ecosystem
      • Community of organisms plus the abiotic factors that exist in a certain area
    • 48. Nutrient cycling Decomposition connects all trophic levels
    • 49. Carbon cycle CO 2 in atmosphere Diffusion Respiration Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Plants and algae Plants Animals Industry and home Combustion of fuels Animals Carbonates in sediment Bicarbonates Deposition of dead material Deposition of dead material Fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal) Dissolved CO2
    • 50. Nitrogen cycle Birds Herbivores Plants Amino acids Carnivores Atmospheric nitrogen Loss to deep sediments Fish Plankton with nitrogen- fixing bacteria Nitrogen- fixing bacteria (plant roots) Nitrogen- fixing bacteria (soil) Denitrifying bacteria Death, excretion, feces Nitrifying bacteria Soil nitrates Excretion Decomposing bacteria Ammonifying bacteria
    • 51. Phosphorus cycle Loss to deep sediment Rocks and minerals Soluble soil phosphate Plants and algae Plants Urine Land animals Precipitates Aquatic animals Animal tissue and feces Animal tissue and feces Decomposers (bacteria and fungi) Decomposers (bacteria and fungi) Phosphates in solution Loss in drainage
    • 52. What have we done!
    • 53. Impact of ecology as a science
      • E cology provides a scientific context for evaluating environmental issues
        • Rachel Carson , in 1962, in her book, Silent Spring , warned that use of pesticides such as DDT was causing population declines in many non-target organisms
    • 54. Barry Commoner’s Laws of Ecology
      • Everything is connected to everything else
      • Everything must go somewhere
        • there is no such place as “ away ”
      • Nature knows best
      • There is no such thing as a free lunch
      Laws of Unintended Consequences
    • 55. Acid Precipitation
      • power plants
      • industry
      • transportation
      • nitrogen oxides
      • sulfur dioxide
    • 56. Acid rain
    • 57. BioMagnification
    • 58. BioMagnification
      • PCBs
        • General Electric manufacturing plant on Hudson River
        • PCBs in sediment
        • striped bass nesting areas
    • 59. Carbon Dioxide Global Warming
    • 60. CO 2 NO x methane
    • 61. Ozone Depletion protects from UV rays
    • 62. Ozone Depletion
    • 63. Bad ozone vs. good ozone
    • 64. Ozone Depletion
      • Loss of ozone above Antarctica
    • 65. Deforestation
      • Loss of habitat
      • Loss of biodiversity
    • 66. Loss of Diversity
      • 3 levels of biodiversity
        • ecosystem diversity
        • mix of species in community
        • genetic diversity within population
      • All decreased by human activity
        • loss of genetic diversity
        • loss of biodiversity
    • 67. Driven to extinction
    • 68. Introduced species
      • Introduced species
        • transplanted populations grow exponentially in new area
        • non-native species out-compete native species
          • lack of competitors & predators
          • reduce diversity
        • examples
          • African honeybee
          • gypsy moth
          • zebra mussel
          • purple loosestrife
      kudzu gypsy moth
    • 69. Zebra mus sel ~2 months
    • 70. Purple loosestrife
    • 71. Purple loosestrife
      • Non-native species out-compete native species
        • lack of competitors & predators
        • reducing diversity
        • causing loss of food & nesting sites for animals
      1968 1978
    • 72. Overexploitation North Atlantic bluefin tuna
    • 73. Fragmented habitat
    • 74. Biodiversity hot spots
    • 75. Restoration projects
    • 76. Think Globally, Act Locally

    ×