Construction equipments


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all the equipments for road or highway construction

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Construction equipments

  1. 1. Submitted by:- Mohit Singh Dagar Civil-A 5th sem. 11107070033 Submitted To:- Mr. Ajit Rathee POLYTECNIC
  2. 2. Contents Introduction to construction equipments. Various equipments used in „Site Clearance‟ with detail. Various equipments used in „Preparation of Sub Grade‟ with detail. Various equipments used in „Spreading of Road Material & Compaction‟ with detail. Various equipments used in „Construction of Wearing Surface for Flexible Pavement‟ with detail. Various equipments used in „Construction of Wearing Surface for Rigid Pavement‟ with detail.
  3. 3. Acknowledgement  I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my teacher-Mr. Ajit Rathee who gave me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic “Construction Equipments” which also helped me in doing a lot of Research and I came to know about so many new things. I am really thankful to them.  Secondly I would also like to thank my parents and friends who helped me a lot in finishing this project within the limited time.  Thirdly I would like to thanks internet from which I collected most of the information.  I am making this project not only for marks but to also increase my knowledge . THANKS AGAIN TO ALL WHO HELPED ME
  4. 4. Construction Equipments • Introduction  There are various plants & equipments are used for construction of highways which not only ensure better work but at the same time influence economy and save time of construction. A highway engineer must be familiar with the functioning and use of these common & modern type of highway making plant and machinery.
  5. 5. Highway Machinery – The plants or machines, for various works included in the construction of highway is referred to as „highway machinery‟.  Various types of work in road construction are: 1. Site clearance. 2. Preparation of sub grade. 3. Spreading of road material & compaction. 4. Surface course construction.
  6. 6. Site clearance • Equipments used for site clearance. 1. Bulldozer . 2. Tractor 3. Scraper 4. Shovel
  7. 7. Bulldozer  It is the most important and commonly used machine of highway construction industry used for leveling & clearing land . It is a heavy tractor with vertical blade at the front used for various operations: 1. Site clearance 2. Excavation 3. Pushing the material in forward direction 4. Leveling earth fills 5. Uprooting trees, shrubs etc.
  8. 8. Tractor  Tractor is the primarily an earth moving machinery intended to exert a powerful tractive force for towing other heavy machines or equipments.  There are two types of tractors. 1. Wheel type tractor- The tractors moved on tyres an used in smooth areas is known as wheel type tractor. 2. Crawler type tractor - The tractor which is moved on endless chain called crawler is known as crawler type tractors.
  9. 9. Scraper  Scraper is a self sufficient earth moving equipment drawn by a tractor used for digging, loading, carrying, dumping and spreading the earth of soil. It is the most economical type of machine used for work operations of small nature where the load is not heavy.
  10. 10. Shovel  Shovel is the most powerful and giant excavating machinery includes power shovels. It is one of the most versatile equipment used in the construction of highways especially for earth work.
  11. 11. Sub Grade Preparation  Equipments used in Sub grade Preparation 1. Tractor 2. Bulldozer 3. Grader 4. Shovel 5. Roller 6. Dumper 7. Dragline
  12. 12. Grader A grader is an earthmoving machine either self propelled or towed by a tractor used for light and medium excavation work.
  13. 13. Roller  T y p e s o f r o l l e r s 1. Cylindrical rollers-These are simple roller of cylindrical shape made up of iron, concrete or stone pulled up manually with the help of hands or by bullocks. 2. Flat wheel rollers- It is most common type of multipurpose roller, generally seen on Indian highways . It can be steam roller or can be run by diesel engine.
  14. 14. 3. Rubber tyred roller - A roller provided with a no. of tyres is termed as rubber tyred roller.A simple rubber tyred roller consists of a small truck having two or more axles with a no. of attached rubber tyred wheels. 4. Sheep foot rollers - In olden days the road is compacted by allowing the pass a flock of sheep‟s or cattle over the loose soil.A hollow cylindrical roller having projections in the form of sheep's foot arranged in staggered rows for efficient compaction is termed as sheep foot roller.
  15. 15. Dragline  A machine having a long light crane boom and a digging bucket for excavation of earth and loading it into hauling units is termed as dragline.
  16. 16. Dumper  Dumper is a lorry which can be emptied by raising the front of the carrier to allow the contents to slide out from the back.
  17. 17. Base course & Sub base course Construction Equipments used in base & sub base course construction. 1. Crusher 2. Tractor 3. Dumper 4. Aggregate distributor 5. Grader 6. Roller
  18. 18. Crusher  The type of machine used for crushing the stones or ballast is known as crusher.
  19. 19. Aggregate Distributor The machine which is used for distributing the aggregates according to their sizes is known as aggregate distributor.
  20. 20. Surface Course Construction  For flexible pavement- 1. Hot mix plant 2. Asphalt mixer 3. Bitumen boiler 4. Bitumen sprayer 5. Aggregate spreader 6. Roller
  21. 21. Hot Mix Plant  A plant which is used for prepare a premix bituminous concrete mixture to be laid over bituminous carpeted roads in a desired ratio is termed as hot mix plant.
  22. 22. Asphalt Mixer Asphalt mixer is a machine or plant used for preparing pre-mix bituminous material consisting of asphalt and road aggregates to be used in bituminous carpeted road is known as asphalt mixer.
  23. 23. Bitumen boiler  The machine used for supply hot bitumen at the required temprature in a continuous system is known as bitumen boiler.
  24. 24. Bitumen sprayer The machine which is used to spray or sprinkle bitumen on the surface in desired quantity is known as bitumen sprayer.
  25. 25. For Rigid Pavement  Types of equipments used for rigid pavement-  Concrete mixer  Vibrator  Concrete Pavers  Batching & Mixing Plant  Concrete Spreader  Finisher
  26. 26. Concrete Mixer The machine which is used for mixing of materials like aggregate, cement, water properly to prepare concrete mixture is known as concrete mixer.
  27. 27. Concrete Pavers The machine which is used to lay the concrete on the road or to making the road‟s wearing surface with proper compaction & finishing is known as concrete paver.
  28. 28. Vibrator Concrete vibrators consolidate freshly poured concrete so that trapped air and excess water are released and the concrete settles firmly in place in the formwork.
  29. 29. Batching And Mixing Plant A concrete plant, also known as a batch plant, is a device that combines various ingredients to form concrete.
  30. 30. Concrete Spreader  It is a type of instrument which is used to spread the concrete by hand on the surface when freshly laid on the road.
  31. 31. Finisher It is the equipment which is used to finish the surface of concrete to improve its structural look to the pleasant is known as concrete finisher.
  32. 32. Bibliography  Mohit Singh Dagar- Theoretical data from book highway Engg . ( Jagroop Singh )  Mohit Singh Dagar- Images from various web sites mostly from & Wikipedia