Mohit Singh Dagar
Civil-A 5th sem.
Mr. Ajit Rathee
Introduction to construction equipments.
Various equipments used in „Site Clearance‟ with detail.
Various equipments used in „Preparation of Sub Grade‟ with detail.
Various equipments used in „Spreading of Road Material &
Compaction‟ with detail.
Various equipments used in „Construction of Wearing Surface for
Flexible Pavement‟ with detail.
Various equipments used in „Construction of Wearing Surface for Rigid
Pavement‟ with detail.
I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my teacher-Mr. Ajit
Rathee who gave me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic
“Construction Equipments” which also helped me in doing a lot of Research and I
came to know about so many new things. I am really thankful to them.
Secondly I would also like to thank my parents and friends who helped me a lot in
finishing this project within the limited time.
Thirdly I would like to thanks internet from which I collected most of the
I am making this project not only for marks but to also increase my knowledge .
THANKS AGAIN TO ALL WHO HELPED ME
There are various plants & equipments are used for
construction of highways which not only ensure better work
but at the same time influence economy and save time of
construction. A highway engineer must be familiar with the
functioning and use of these common & modern type of
highway making plant and machinery.
Highway Machinery – The plants or machines, for various works
included in the construction of highway is referred to as „highway
Various types of work in road construction are:
1. Site clearance.
2. Preparation of sub grade.
3. Spreading of road material & compaction.
4. Surface course construction.
• Equipments used for site clearance.
1. Bulldozer .
It is the most important and commonly used machine of highway construction
industry used for leveling & clearing land . It is a heavy tractor with vertical
blade at the front used for various operations:
1. Site clearance
3. Pushing the material in forward direction
4. Leveling earth fills
5. Uprooting trees, shrubs etc.
Tractor is the primarily an earth moving machinery intended to exert a powerful
tractive force for towing other heavy machines or equipments.
There are two types of tractors.
1. Wheel type tractor- The tractors moved on tyres an used in smooth areas is
known as wheel type tractor.
2. Crawler type tractor - The tractor which is moved on endless chain called
crawler is known as crawler type tractors.
Scraper is a self sufficient earth moving equipment drawn by a
tractor used for digging, loading, carrying, dumping and spreading
the earth of soil. It is the most economical type of machine used for
work operations of small nature where the load is not heavy.
Shovel is the most powerful and giant excavating
machinery includes power shovels. It is one of the most
versatile equipment used in the construction of highways
especially for earth work.
Sub Grade Preparation
Equipments used in Sub grade Preparation
A grader is an earthmoving machine either self propelled
or towed by a tractor used for light and medium excavation
T y p e s o f r o l l e r s
1. Cylindrical rollers-These are simple roller of cylindrical shape made up of
iron, concrete or stone pulled up manually with the help of hands or by
2. Flat wheel rollers- It is most common type of multipurpose roller, generally
seen on Indian highways . It can be steam roller or can be run by diesel
3. Rubber tyred roller - A roller provided with a no. of tyres is termed as rubber
tyred roller.A simple rubber tyred roller consists of a small truck having two or more
axles with a no. of attached rubber tyred wheels.
4. Sheep foot rollers - In olden days the road is compacted by allowing the
pass a flock of sheep‟s or cattle over the loose soil.A hollow cylindrical roller
having projections in the form of sheep's foot arranged in staggered rows for
efficient compaction is termed as sheep foot roller.
A machine having a long light crane boom and a digging
bucket for excavation of earth and loading it into hauling
units is termed as dragline.
Dumper is a lorry which can be emptied by raising the
front of the carrier to allow the contents to slide out from
Base course & Sub base course Construction
Equipments used in base & sub base course construction.
4. Aggregate distributor
The type of machine used for crushing the stones or ballast
is known as crusher.
The machine which is used for distributing the aggregates
according to their sizes is known as aggregate distributor.
Surface Course Construction
For flexible pavement-
1. Hot mix plant
2. Asphalt mixer
3. Bitumen boiler
4. Bitumen sprayer
5. Aggregate spreader
Hot Mix Plant
A plant which is used for prepare a premix bituminous concrete
mixture to be laid over bituminous carpeted roads in a desired ratio
is termed as hot mix plant.
Asphalt mixer is a machine or plant used for preparing pre-mix
bituminous material consisting of asphalt and road aggregates to be
used in bituminous carpeted road is known as asphalt mixer.
The machine used for supply hot bitumen at the required
temprature in a continuous system is known as bitumen
The machine which is used to spray or sprinkle
bitumen on the surface in desired quantity is known
as bitumen sprayer.
For Rigid Pavement
Types of equipments used for rigid pavement-
Batching & Mixing Plant
The machine which is used for mixing of materials like
aggregate, cement, water properly to prepare concrete
mixture is known as concrete mixer.
The machine which is used to lay the concrete on the road
or to making the road‟s wearing surface with proper
compaction & finishing is known as concrete paver.
Concrete vibrators consolidate freshly poured concrete so that
trapped air and excess water are released and the concrete settles
firmly in place in the formwork.
Batching And Mixing Plant
A concrete plant, also known as a batch plant, is a device
that combines various ingredients to form concrete.
It is a type of instrument which is used to spread the
concrete by hand on the surface when freshly laid on the
It is the equipment which is used to finish the surface of
concrete to improve its structural look to the pleasant is
known as concrete finisher.
Mohit Singh Dagar- Theoretical data from book highway Engg .
( Jagroop Singh )
Mohit Singh Dagar- Images from various web sites mostly from
www.google.co.in & Wikipedia