Topic 6 Product Design

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IB D&T Coursework Topic Booklet

IB D&T Coursework Topic Booklet

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  • 1. N Sutton June 2007 Generic Design Technology. International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) Topic 6 Product Design (5 hours approx. 4 lessons) Name: Product Design TG: 1
  • 2. Glossary Anthropometrics The aspect of ergonomics that deals with body measurements, particularly those of size, strength and physical capacity. Ergonomics The application of scientific information concerning the relationship of human beings to the design of objects, systems and environments. Fashion Defined as a style or trend. Percentile range That proportion of a population with a dimension at or less than a given value. Planned obsolescence A conscious act either to ensure a continuing market or to ensure that safety factors and new technologies can be incorporated into later versions of the product. Look at the powerpoint presenatation on Ergonomics: Core Topic 6 Intro Lesson 1 Ergonomics Any designer will require exact information about materials, structures, tolerances etc. However in the past when it came to information about the people who would be using the products, designers relied on common sense. The relatively new study of people in order to design products and systems, which are better adapted to human capabilities, is known as ergonomics. A combination of the Greek ergon (meaning work) and nomia (meaning management of organisation) H.Murrell (1940) DEFINITIONS: “The fit between man and machine” “The interface between humans and their environment” The discipline of Ergonomics traditionally covers all aspects of the interface, i.e. physiological, psychological and sociological. Because of this the term “human-factor engineering” is being used as it focuses on anthropometric data and usability studies. This helps to aid the process of making products easier to use, safer and better matched to the human body. Ergonomists are scientists who have specialised in the study of the interface between people and the things they come into contact with—particularly artificial things. Ergonomists are likely to be involved in the manufacture of vehicles (cars, aeroplanes, and bicycles), household products (kitchen equipment, toys, computers, and furniture), clothing (shoes, sportswear, and jumpers) and many other products. 2
  • 3. Anthropometrics DEFINITION: “The study of the measurements of the human body” It is therefore that part of ergonomics which deals with body measurement, particularly size, strength and physical capacity. It was developed by Henry Dreyfus in the USA in the 1940/50’s. To be universally effective, anthropometrics are used to describe the “user” or “target population” for a particular product. Having data available on these groups takes the guesswork out of designing. Basic statistical information is used to interpret these data, e.g. Percentile study. Today, designers and engineers rely on anthropometric data (body measurements) and experimental usability studies, to aid the process of making products easier to understand, safer to use, and better matched to the human body. The elderly, children, and disabled people are special groups with which ergonomic analysis may be concerned. 1. In your booklet, draw a normal curve of distribution showing the median and the 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles. Draw another graph showing a skewed distribution and explain why this might be so. 3
  • 4. Percentile range A “percentile” is a unit comprising 100th of the population. Many products are designed to be used by the users who fall between the 5th and the 95th percentile. List some examples. Some products, are designed for the 50th percentile and therefore all tend to be the same height. List some examples. Some products are made adjustable, so they ‘fit’ a bigger percentile range. List some examples. http://www.ider.herts.ac.uk/school/courseware/ergono mics/anthropometrics.html The graph shows the percentile range for the height of girls aged 2 – 18. VIDEO: How good design can improve lives Server - All staff drive Z:DepartmentsTechnologyD&T VCD'sDesign 4 Life 4
  • 5. Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) Meaningful estimates of nutritional requirements must take account of the distribution of requirements within a population or group. To achieve this, the COMA panel used four Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) (Figure 1). DRVs are estimates of the requirements for groups of people and are not recommendations or goals for individuals. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): This is an estimate of the average requirement for energy or a nutrient - approximately 50% of a group of people will require less, and 50% will require more. For a group of people receiving adequate amounts, the range of intakes will vary around the EAR. Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI): The RNI is the amount of a nutrient that is enough to ensure that the needs of nearly all the group (97.5%) are being met. By definition, many within the group will need less. Another everyday situation is the design of workstations which requires the application of anthropometric and ergonomic data. VCR has provided a sample of relevant data taken from the Marine Corps study (listed above) and other sources. VCR added the information for the angle of sight (Z) from various sources that recommended angles between 5 and 15 degrees. For simplicity VCR shows the popiteal height (F) measured to the same baseline as the compressed seat height. To adjust for shoe height, add 25 mm for men or 45 mm for women (1). Female Male 5% 50% 95% 5% 50% 95% A 690 743 795 739 795 850 B 181 226 266 188 235 274 C 406 439 479 447 482 520 D 438 478 525 458 499 544 E 540 585 637 569 616 665 F 352 388 428 395 434 476 G 474 513 558 515 559 605 All measurements in mm. (A) Eye height sitting (B) Elbow rest height (C) Forearm-hand length (D) Buttock-popiteal length (E) Buttock-knee length (F) Popiteal height - no shoes (G) Knee height sitting - no shoes. VCR = http://www.valuecreatedreview.com/design.htm 5 (1) Ergonomics by Stephen Pheasant
  • 6. Task - 1. As a class group, record the height of each person and determine the average height for the group. 2. Compare this to the 50 th percentile range for the height of girls/boys aged 16. 3. Research the height of kitchen work surfaces in Ikea. Are they all the same or do they vary? 4. Discuss/show diagrams of any good design features you find, e.g. adjustable heights to meet individual needs 5. Compare your findings from Ikea to the average class height. Can you draw any conclusions? 6. Identify a specific design context where a designer would use percentile ranges for particular user groups. e.g. children’s toy appliances. Psychological factors Individuals react differently to sensory stimuli. Efficiency and comfort are affected by such factors. A designer must be aware of the effects that temperature, sound, light, taste, smell and colour form on the perceptions of users and how they influence the designed environment. Temperature Heating conditions in work and leisure, comfort zones e.g. supermarket/restaurant temperatures that are comfortable for the consumer Sound Supermarkets carefully choose music that is ‘easy listening’ to try to improve the mood of the consumer while shopping Light Lighting in workplaces, safety. E.g. effects of florescent. Lighting effect on ambience and mood e.g. lighting in restaurants – gentle, calming, stimulating. Texture Appreciation of textile qualities and their applications in design situations. e.g. smoothness of kitchen work surfaces for reasons of hygiene, tiles on a factory floor (i.e. roughened surface to prevent slipping). Colours Effects on emotions. e.g. sense of `warmth' and `coldness' i.e. `warm' red/orange/yellow ‘cool' violet/green/blue. The use and application of such knowledge in the designed environment. e.g. decoration, symbols, Smell/ Taste Aroma dispensers to provide an expected smell (e.g. fresh bread, coffee odours in supermarkets) or to mask other odours e.g. cigarette smoke in bars. Collecting data related to psychological factors is a matter of perception. Individuals will differ in their response to the same question even if the variable is the same. E.g. one person will find a room temperature comfortable while another person will find it uncomfortable, though the temperature is the same. 6
  • 7. Human needs The items that we as humans need to lead a full satisfying life are many and diverse in nature. The following hierarchical order the five categories of human need and give an example of each. 1) Physiological needs - hunger, thirst, sleep 2) Safety - defense, shelter 3) Belonging and love needs - affection, friendship 4) Esteem needs - Self respect, confidence, prestige 5) Need for self-actualisation - fulfillment, creativity, and expression. Bodily tolerances, such as fatigue and comfort will affect ergonomics. E.g. The controls for a machine may be designed for correct reach but, if in constant use, may cause fatigue and inefficiency. A car seat may be comfortable for short journeys but not for long journeys. Maslov’s Heirachy of Needs 7
  • 8. The Designer and Society Planned Obsolescence - A conscious act either to ensure a continuing market or to ensure that safety factors and new technologies can be incorporated into later versions of the product. Planned, obsolescence is the description given to something that has been designed to have a limited working life. Manufacturers may accelerate the obsolescence of a product by introducing new, more desirable products or versions of the existing product. E.g. Toasters, electric kettles, refrigerators, televisions, mobile phones. The iPod is a great example. The original iPod and iPod nano were developed at the same time however the nano was not released until years later!! View the latest products online. http://store.apple.com/Apple/WebObjects/ukstore?iPodStore=yes&cid=AOSA3000002 3952 Consumers today expect product innovations and tend to react favourably to new features. This has an important bearing on the usable life deliberately designed into a product, which in turn has a significant effect on the costs to the manufacturer and ultimately on the price to the consumer. Competition between manufacturers of similar products naturally accelerates the speed of changes made in those products. The `Kleenex culture' Term used by Victor Papanek to describe the throwaway material society that we all live in (man). The prevalence of disposable nappies, gloves, knives, forks, plates etc. lead us into a culture that demands products to be replaced once they have been used a limited number of times. • Brainstorm the moral and social responsibilities of designers in relation to green design issues. 8
  • 9. Complete the following: Advantages of planned obsolescence to consumers Disadvantages of planned obsolescence to consumers Advantages of planned obsolescence to manufacturers Disadvantages of planned obsolescence to manufacturers Explain how planned obsolescence influences the design specification of a product. Consider materials and construction, durability and ease of maintenance. 9
  • 10. Fashion can be defined as a style or trend. Some examples of using a trend for the sale or promotion of products are given. Can you think of others? 1. McDonald’s Happy Meals – use latest kid’s films to promote their product through packaging and giveaways. The promotion is linked to the length of time a film is a new release, therefore it is planned obsolescence. 2. Children’s sweets and cadies developed to relates to a film e.g. Nemo fish candies. 3. Thomas the Tank Engine/ Hello Kitty/Disney children style plates, cups, lunch boxes. Some of these can be planned obsolescence and others a fashion or trend. A Disney product may use the latest Disney film which will have a shorter product life cycle than Thomas the tank Engine for example. 4. Go to the Kellogg’s website to check the latest promotions on cereal boxes. http://www2.kelloggs.com/Promotion/Promotion.aspx 5. 6. 10
  • 11. • Compare the influence of fashion and planned obsolescence on the product cycle. N.B. Planned obsolescence has a definite timescale; fashion is less predictable. Both may be present. How does aesthetics affect the design of products? Under the headings shape/form, colour and texture list a range of products and explain the relevance of aesthetics to the design. E.g. additives, packaging, buildings/bridges, MP3 players/iPod’s, PSP’s • Colour - Below is an example of a home brand package for Taco shells and a name brand. Which one would you buy? Why? Home brand package Name brand packages List other examples specific to your option area. 11
  • 12. • Shape/form – Comment on these two products as well as listing others. Samsung SGH-P930 Mobile TV Phone Apple iPhone • Texture - Include pictures of products to help explain this heading. 12
  • 13. A designer faces conflict when attempting to balance form and function. There is often a tension between the aesthetic characteristics and functionality, aesthetic characteristics and safety issues and aesthetic characteristics and cost or value for money. To the consumer aesthetic considerations may outweigh functional considerations at the point of sale. Additives, • Evaluate the influence of fashion and planned obsolescence in relation to the quality and value of a product. Consider whether quot;designerquot; products are better quality than cheaper brands of the same product. Consider also the values of a “throw away society”. Give examples in your answer. • A designer faces conflict when attempting to balance form and function. There is often a tension between the aesthetic characteristics and functionality, aesthetic characteristics and safety issues and aesthetic characteristics and cost or value for money. To the consumer aesthetic considerations may outweigh functional considerations at the point of sale. 13