Islamic  Religion
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Islamic Religion






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Islamic  Religion Islamic Religion Presentation Transcript

  • Islamic Religion
  • What is Islam?
    • Second largest religion in the world
      • 1.2 Billion Muslims (20% of earth population)
    • Began in modern day Saudi Arabia
    • Based on beliefs on Jews & Christians
      • Abraham is first important figure
      • Belief in the same, single God
    • Follows the teachings of the prophet Muhammad
  • What is the Qur’an?
    • Holy Book of Islam
    • Revealed to Muhammad by the Angel Gabriel
    • Contains the words of Allah.
    • Ideally, it should be read and printed in Arabic only.
    • Contains parts of the Torah and Bible
  • Who is Muhammad?
    • A prophet of God, but not a god himself
      • He is not worshipped
    • Born in Saudi Arabia, in city of Mecca
    • A trader until age 40, when Qur’an revealed to him.
    • His teachings are the foundation of Islam.
  • Who is Muhammad?
    • Claimed to travel with Angels to Jerusalem one night
      • Given tour of Heaven and Hell
      • Temple built over the site where he went to heaven.
    • He and his followers make polytheists in Mecca angry, move to Medina. (hijra)
    • After a decade, he invades Mecca.
    • Later, he leads some battles himself to “defend the faith.”
    • Dies in Medina at age 63
      • No male sons
      • Only one daughter
  • Basic Islamic Beliefs
    • One unique god, without a partner or son.
    • Belief in God’s revealed books:
      • - Torah, Bible, Qur’an
    • Belief in all Gods prophets:
      • - Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Muhammad
    • A final day of judgment.
    • Belief in the angels of God.
  • Other Beliefs
    • Islam Emphasizes:
      • Tolerance, Humility, Justice, generosity, obedience to law, and courage.
    • Islam Forbids the consumption of:
      • Pork (pigs believed to be unclean)
      • Alcohol
  • The Five Pillars of Islam
    • Muhammad said five pillars held up the building of Islam:
      • Testimony of Faith
        • - “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet.”
      • Prayer:
        • - 5 times a day
      • Charity:
        • - 2.5% of Muslim income goes to the needy, mosques, etc
      • Fasting
        • - During Ramadan , no eating during the day
      • Hajj:
        • - Travel to Mecca at least once, if physically/financially able.
  • The Hajj
    • The Fifth Pillar of Islam
      • Pilgrimage to Mecca
    • 3-6 days of rituals and prayer
    • Focus is on the Ka'ba, the holiest shrine and supposed first house of mankind.
    • Pilgrims are called “hajji”
      • Not to be used as a derogatory word
      • Women may not go without men.
  • Sects of Islam
    • Two Major Sects:
      • Sunni
      • Shi’a (Shiite)
    • Sunni
      • approx 90% of Muslims
      • Believe successors to Muhammad should be chosen by the community
      • Do not believe in intermediary (middle-man) between Allah and people.
    • Shi’a (Shiite)
      • approx 10% of Muslims
      • Think Muhammad’s successor should be his relatives
      • Believe in an intermediary called an Imam
      • Those with religious authority should rule govn’t too.
  • Successors of Muhammad
    • Abu Bakr is chosen as Caliph
      • Bakr’s advisor becomes caliph later.
    • To avoid civil wars of succession, each diverted attention by invading neighboring, non-Muslim nations.
    • Weak Persian and Byzantine empires made conquest easy.
  • Spread of Islam
  • Spread of Islam
    • Islam spreads despite major geographic barriers including mountains and deserts.
    • Is at first spread along the major trade routes to Mecca and Medina.
    • Arabic language facilitated trade and intellectual activities.
      • Arabic was the language of the Koran
      • Therefore, all Muslims could communicate in Arabic.
      • Traders thus spread the religion and other ideas as they traded.
  • Arabs as Conquerors
    • Tolerant of conquered people.
    • Conquered people had three choices:
      • 1. Convert to Islam
      • 2. Don’t convert, pay annual tribute
      • * Non-Muslims could not be in government
      • 3. Refusal of both meant death
    • Muslims conquer major cities of Jerusalem and Damascus.
    • Muslim invasion into Europe stopped at battle of Tours when Franks defeat the Moors of Spain.
    • In less than 100 years, Muslim/Arab empire spread from India to Spain.
  • Spread of Islam
  • The Crusades
    • Muslims called Seljuk Turks invade Byzantium.
    • Westerners try to “recapture” the Constantinople and other “Holy Lands.”
    • Seljuk Turks defeated.
    • Crusades spread Arab ideas, culture, and art to Western Europe.
    • 200 years later, the Ottoman Turks finally defeat Byzantine Empire in 1453 AD.
  • Little Political Unity
    • Despite a common language and religion, political unity in the first Muslim Empire was short-lived.
      • People fought over who should be Caliph
      • Sunni / Shi’a split
    • Eventually the Muslim world split into three caliphates (areas).
      • Capitals at Cordova (Spain), Cairo (Egypt), and Baghdad.
      • Each had its own caliph.