Islamic Religion

544 views
510 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
544
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
20
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Islamic Religion

  1. 1. Islamic Religion
  2. 2. What is Islam? <ul><li>Second largest religion in the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.2 Billion Muslims (20% of earth population) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Began in modern day Saudi Arabia </li></ul><ul><li>Based on beliefs on Jews & Christians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abraham is first important figure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief in the same, single God </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Follows the teachings of the prophet Muhammad </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is the Qur’an? <ul><li>Holy Book of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Revealed to Muhammad by the Angel Gabriel </li></ul><ul><li>Contains the words of Allah. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideally, it should be read and printed in Arabic only. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains parts of the Torah and Bible </li></ul>
  4. 4. Who is Muhammad? <ul><li>A prophet of God, but not a god himself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He is not worshipped </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Born in Saudi Arabia, in city of Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>A trader until age 40, when Qur’an revealed to him. </li></ul><ul><li>His teachings are the foundation of Islam. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Who is Muhammad? <ul><li>Claimed to travel with Angels to Jerusalem one night </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Given tour of Heaven and Hell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temple built over the site where he went to heaven. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He and his followers make polytheists in Mecca angry, move to Medina. (hijra) </li></ul><ul><li>After a decade, he invades Mecca. </li></ul><ul><li>Later, he leads some battles himself to “defend the faith.” </li></ul><ul><li>Dies in Medina at age 63 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No male sons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only one daughter </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Basic Islamic Beliefs <ul><li>One unique god, without a partner or son. </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in God’s revealed books: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Torah, Bible, Qur’an </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Belief in all Gods prophets: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Muhammad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A final day of judgment. </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in the angels of God. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Other Beliefs <ul><li>Islam Emphasizes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerance, Humility, Justice, generosity, obedience to law, and courage. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Islam Forbids the consumption of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pork (pigs believed to be unclean) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Five Pillars of Islam <ul><li>Muhammad said five pillars held up the building of Islam: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testimony of Faith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prayer: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- 5 times a day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charity: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- 2.5% of Muslim income goes to the needy, mosques, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fasting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- During Ramadan , no eating during the day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hajj: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Travel to Mecca at least once, if physically/financially able. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Hajj <ul><li>The Fifth Pillar of Islam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilgrimage to Mecca </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3-6 days of rituals and prayer </li></ul><ul><li>Focus is on the Ka'ba, the holiest shrine and supposed first house of mankind. </li></ul><ul><li>Pilgrims are called “hajji” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not to be used as a derogatory word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women may not go without men. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Sects of Islam <ul><li>Two Major Sects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunni </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shi’a (Shiite) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sunni </li></ul><ul><ul><li>approx 90% of Muslims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believe successors to Muhammad should be chosen by the community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not believe in intermediary (middle-man) between Allah and people. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shi’a (Shiite) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>approx 10% of Muslims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think Muhammad’s successor should be his relatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believe in an intermediary called an Imam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those with religious authority should rule govn’t too. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Successors of Muhammad <ul><li>Abu Bakr is chosen as Caliph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bakr’s advisor becomes caliph later. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To avoid civil wars of succession, each diverted attention by invading neighboring, non-Muslim nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Weak Persian and Byzantine empires made conquest easy. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Spread of Islam
  13. 13. Spread of Islam <ul><li>Islam spreads despite major geographic barriers including mountains and deserts. </li></ul><ul><li>Is at first spread along the major trade routes to Mecca and Medina. </li></ul><ul><li>Arabic language facilitated trade and intellectual activities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arabic was the language of the Koran </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, all Muslims could communicate in Arabic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traders thus spread the religion and other ideas as they traded. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Arabs as Conquerors <ul><li>Tolerant of conquered people. </li></ul><ul><li>Conquered people had three choices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Convert to Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Don’t convert, pay annual tribute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* Non-Muslims could not be in government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Refusal of both meant death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muslims conquer major cities of Jerusalem and Damascus. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim invasion into Europe stopped at battle of Tours when Franks defeat the Moors of Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>In less than 100 years, Muslim/Arab empire spread from India to Spain. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Spread of Islam
  16. 16. The Crusades <ul><li>Muslims called Seljuk Turks invade Byzantium. </li></ul><ul><li>Westerners try to “recapture” the Constantinople and other “Holy Lands.” </li></ul><ul><li>Seljuk Turks defeated. </li></ul><ul><li>Crusades spread Arab ideas, culture, and art to Western Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>200 years later, the Ottoman Turks finally defeat Byzantine Empire in 1453 AD. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Little Political Unity <ul><li>Despite a common language and religion, political unity in the first Muslim Empire was short-lived. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People fought over who should be Caliph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunni / Shi’a split </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eventually the Muslim world split into three caliphates (areas). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitals at Cordova (Spain), Cairo (Egypt), and Baghdad. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each had its own caliph. </li></ul></ul>

×