Digital Literacy in Teacher Education in Germany - Current Issues and Concepts
Teacher education and Digital Literacy. Mandy Rohs University of Duisburg-‐Essen Current issues and concepts in Germany Germany Talk at University of Florida, College of Education, 14.11.2011
in Europe there are diﬀerent academic traditions, national policy priorities and trans-‐national sectorcal and corporate interests concerning media and digital literacyhttp://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/alexanderkirk/3782582678/sizes/z/in/photostream/
media literacy is deﬁned as the ability to access the media, to understand and to critically evaluate diﬀerent aspects of Information literacy is the media and media contents deﬁned as the skill to access, and to create communications evaluate and use information in a variety of contexts properly, to manage the information ﬂow coming from a variety of sources, and to apply a fundamental understanding of the ethical/ legal issues surrounding the access and use of information European Commission 2007, p. 3/5http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/alexanderkirk/3782582678/sizes/z/in/photostream/
The ‘German‘ discussion two main strands: 1) ‘normative media-‐educational’ discussion 2) the ‘instrumental-‐technological’ discussion http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/iwannt/2362891666/sizes/l/in/photostream/ (Gapski, 2001) Whereas the former is pedagogically oriented the latter requires access and technical knowledge Pietrass, 2007, 2010
‘normative media-‐educational approach’ the theoretical discourse was introduced into the educational discourse by Dieter Baacke (1973)http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/virtualpixel/5027724994/sizes/l/in/photostream/ based on the discourse on Habermas and Chomsky media competence -‐ media critique -‐ media use -‐ media production -‐ media knowledge normative requirements (Bachmair & Balzalgette, 2007)
‘normative media-‐educational approach’ 3 content ﬁelds understanding and evaluating media messages becoming aware of and http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/virtualpixel/5027724994/sizes/l/in/photostream/ dealing with media inﬂuences identifying and evaluating conditions of media production and dissemination 2 ﬁelds of activity distinguising and using appropriate types of media for a variety of purposes creating and disseminating own media messages Tulodziecki, Herzig & Grafe (2011)
‘normative media-‐educational approach’ Critisismhttp://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/virtualpixel/5027724994/sizes/l/in/photostream/ normative approach hard to measure
http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/elaws/4491818299/sizes/l/in/photostream/,instrumental-‐technological‘ approachfunctionalistic approach of media literacy,measurable‘ facets of ICT-‐literacy, e.g.: accesss: skill to use basic fuctions of computers to access, collect and provide information evaluate: cognitive skills to make judgements about the quality of online-‐information (e.g. Goldhammer, Naumann, & Pfaﬀ, in preparation)
http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/elaws/4491818299/sizes/l/in/photostream/,instrumental-‐technological‘ approachCritisismreduces media use to its occurrence and derives competences from the required handling of the respective technologyimpede a critical way of looking at the opportunities and problems of media technologies reduce media competence to the requirements of the technical system see Pietraß (2002, 2007)
especially in comparative educational research psychological orientated educational researchdeﬁnition of ,new constructs‘ICILS Study: CIL -‐ Computer and Information Literacycomputer based assessmentNEPS (National Educational Panel Study) with focus on digital literacy during lifespan http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/benjaminalmen/3308652908/sizes/l/in/photostream/
explicate the six aspects of CIL and provide some suggestions of how they may beoperationalised in the proposed ICILS instruments.F igure 1. Conceptual structure of the proposed I C I LS Computer and Information L iteracy construct Computer and information computers to investigate, create and communicate in order to participate effectively at home, at school, in the workplace and in the community. Strand 1 Strand 2 Collecting and managing Producing and exchanging information information Aspect 1.1 Aspect 2.1 Knowing about and Transforming information understanding computer use Aspect 2.2 Aspect 1.2 Creating information Accessing and evaluating information Aspect 2.3 Sharing information Aspect 1.3 Managing information!"#0.123+(44&%"5.60.170.065.65.)(#70"5(.Collecting and managing informationhttp://icils2013.acer.edu.au/wp-‐content/uploads/examples/ICILS-‐Detailed-‐Project-‐Description.pdf focuses on the receptive elements of
But what‘s about digital literacy in teacher education in Germany? http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_TEciO39Vxlw/TDWA3bmd2MI/AAAAAAAAACw/fTc955rhS8w/s1600/plu+picture.jpg 2 dimensions: being literate and teaching literacy
Education is a matter for the German federal Länder, or regions
to little research in K12-‐ teacher education, especially for digital literacy but (some/ﬁrst) empirical resultshttp://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/adesigna/5544094922/sizes/l/in/photostream/
First research in teacher education,media pedagogical comeptence‘includemedia-‐educationmedia-‐didacticsmedia-‐socializationown media-‐literacyschool development according digital media Blömeke (2005)
http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/americaswildlife/6277356510/sizes/l/in/photostrea What is written in (general) documents of teacher education?
initial teacher education. Inclusion of ICT in initial education for teachers in Figure D4: Regulations on the inclusion of ICT in initial education for teachers in primary and general secondary education (ISCED 1, sand 3), 2009/10 primary and 2 econdary education Inclusion of ICT in the initial education of all teachers Institutional autonomySource: Eurydice.
education target only generalist teachers. At secondary level, few countries target only specialist ICTteachers but where this is the case, the regulations usually cover more technical ICT skills such asICT-‐related skills in core curriculum for initial maintaining computer systems or creating websites. In the other countries where regulations exist,they are directed at all specialist teachers at secondary level, including specialist ICT teachers andeducation for teachersspecialist teachers of other subjects. Figure D5: ICT-related skills defined in the core curriculum for initial education for teachers in primary and general secondary education (ISCED 1, 2 and 3), 2009/10 Internet use Maintaining computer systems Creating websites Pedagogical issues Subject-specific training Multimedia operations Left Right Institutional Generalist Only specialist All specialist ISCED 1 ISCED 2 + 3 autonomy teachers ICT teachers teachersSource: Eurydice.
situation in Germany digital literacy is named in e.g. in the standards for teacher education by The Standing http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/smemon/4902523202/sizes/l/in/photostream/ Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Aﬀairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany but mostly general aspects or in preamles
content analysis of teacher ducation documents of 5 German Universities http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/shutterhacks/4474421855/sizes/l/in/photostream/ 90 Documents (e.g. study regulations, university calendars, study examination documents, ...) from 2007-‐2010digital literacy is named as a main goal of teacher educationbut strong focus of media didactics and teaching with media Schiefner-‐Rohs (2011b)
What do teacher students say? http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/shahdi/5568051608/sizes/l/in/photostream/digital literacy in their study program Schiefner-‐Rohs, 2011
! topic of courses in teacher education presentaAon soBware in teaching and learning audiovisual media in teaching and learning Internet in teaching and learning learning soBware in teaching and learningmedial impacts for kids and youth creaAon of media ø 2.3 courses during use of media their studies criAcal literacy / diAgal literacy medial environments of kids and youth digital games for kids and youth knowledge of media structure
existence of digital teaching and learning sessions in teacher education (Kleimann et al., 2008, Schiefner-‐Rohs, 2011)! virtual labs online live lectures virtual seminars and tutorates with virtual cooperaAon interacAve teaching online learning materials N = 527
how often teacher students use digial media (Kleimann et al., 2008, Schiefner-‐Rohs, 2011) computer-‐based assessment E-‐PorLolios Webbased -‐Trainings online E-‐Assessment online-‐Courses without presence Wikis Weblogs E-‐Lectures with slides Podcasts (very) oBen someAmes (very) seldom never isn‘t integrated N = 527
First results of asking students http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/shahdi/5568051608/sizes/l/in/photostream/ focus of teaching and learning with digital media less digital media during their study depends on university teacher
Deep insight: Case Study 2 institutions of teacher education explorative study (see Lamnek, 1993) Triangulation of methods (Flick, 2004a, 2008; Treumann, 2005)http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/en321/19360914/sizes/o/in/photostream/ Content analysis (N=40) Interviews with professors 2 Schiefner-‐Rohs (2011a)
Critical media literacy mainly is found in descriptions of courses, seldom in study regulations university culture http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/pixeltree/5621338552/sizes/l/in/photostream/ diﬀerences between the university and the university of teacher education strong inﬂuence of learning culture in higher education
Asking faculty staﬀ for the integration of teaching and learning critical media literacy ... http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/jmsmytaste/90648278/sizes/l/in/photostream/great inﬂuence of informal learning and the engagment of university teachers Schiefner Rohs (2011) N= 101
Challanges in teacher education http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/lennox_mcdough/5081664474/sizes/l/in/photostream/deal with the structure of teacher educationdigital literacy of university teachers,nature‘ of teaching digital literacy: near subject, not stand aloneassessment of digital literacy
http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/shawnecono/232647148/sizes/l/in/photostream/future prospects more research more concepts of integration personal and academic development
Thanks for your attention Questions?Mandy RohsUniversity of Duisburg-‐EssenEducational Media and Knowledge Managementmandy.rohs@uni-‐due.dehttp://www.2headz.chhttp://www.twitter.com/mschiefner
some LiteratureGrafe,S. (i.Dr.). ‚media literacy‘ und ‚media (literacy) education‘ in den USA: ein Brückenschlag über den Atlantik. Erscheint in: H. Moser, P. Grell & H. Niesyto (Hrsg.). Medienbildung und Medienkompetenz. Beiträge zu Schlüsselbegriﬀen. München: kopäd. Pietraß, M. (2007). Digital Literacy Research from an International and Comparative Point of View. Research in Comparative and International Education, 2(1), 1-‐2. Pietraß, M. (2010). Digital Literacies. Empirische Vielfalt als Herausforderung für eine einheitliche Bestimmung von Medienkompetenz. In B. Bachmair (Hrsg.), Medienbildung in neuen Kulturräumen -‐ die deutschsprachige und britische Diskussion (S. 74-‐84). Wiesbaden: VS, Verl. für Sozialwissenschaften. Schiefner-‐Rohs, M. (2011). Kritische Informations-‐ und Medienkompetenz im Hochschulstudium. Theoretisch-‐konzeptionelle Überlegungen und erste empirische Betrachtungen am Beispiel der Lehrerausbildung. Universität der Bundeswehr München, München.Schiefner-‐Rohs, M. (2001). Verankerung von medienpädagogischer Kompetenz in der universitären Lehrerbildung. In R. Schulz-‐Zander, B. Eickelmann, H. Moser, H. Niesyto & P. Grell (Hrsg.). Jahrbuch Medienpädagogik 2009. Wiesbaden: VS-‐Verlag.
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