Digital Literacy in Teacher Education in Germany - Current Issues and Concepts

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  • 1. Teacher  education  and  Digital  Literacy.   Mandy  Rohs University  of  Duisburg-­‐Essen Current  issues  and  concepts  in   Germany Germany Talk  at  University  of  Florida,   College  of  Education,  14.11.2011
  • 2. in  Europe  there  are  different  academic  traditions,   national  policy  priorities  and  trans-­‐national  sectorcal   and  corporate  interests   concerning  media  and  digital  literacy
  • 3. media  literacy  is  defined  as   the  ability  to  access  the  media,   to  understand  and  to  critically   evaluate  different  aspects  of   Information  literacy  is   the  media  and  media  contents   defined  as  the  skill  to  access,   and  to  create  communications   evaluate  and  use  information   in  a  variety  of  contexts properly,  to  manage  the   information  flow  coming   from  a  variety  of  sources,   and  to  apply  a  fundamental   understanding  of  the  ethical/ legal  issues  surrounding  the   access  and  use  of  information European  Commission  2007,  p.  3/5
  • 4. The  ‘German‘  discussion two  main  strands:    1)  ‘normative  media-­‐educational’  discussion 2)  the  ‘instrumental-­‐technological’  discussion  (Gapski,  2001)  Whereas  the  former    is   pedagogically  oriented the  latter  requires  access  and   technical  knowledge Pietrass,  2007,  2010
  • 5. ‘normative  media-­‐educational   approach’ the  theoretical  discourse  was  introduced  into  the   educational  discourse  by  Dieter  Baacke  (1973) based  on  the  discourse  on   Habermas  and  Chomsky media  competence -­‐  media  critique -­‐  media  use -­‐  media  production -­‐  media  knowledge normative  requirements  (Bachmair  &  Balzalgette,  2007)
  • 6. ‘normative  media-­‐educational   approach’ 3  content  fields understanding  and   evaluating  media  messages becoming  aware  of  and dealing  with  media  influences identifying  and  evaluating   conditions  of  media  production   and  dissemination 2  fields  of  activity distinguising  and  using   appropriate  types  of  media   for  a  variety  of  purposes creating  and  disseminating   own  media  messages Tulodziecki,  Herzig    &  Grafe  (2011)
  • 7. ‘normative  media-­‐educational   approach’ Critisism normative  approach   hard  to  measure
  • 8.,instrumental-­‐technological‘  approachfunctionalistic  approach  of  media  literacy,measurable‘  facets  of  ICT-­‐literacy,  e.g.:                  accesss:  skill  to  use  basic  fuctions  of  computers  to  access,  collect                  and  provide  information                evaluate:  cognitive  skills  to  make  judgements  about  the  quality                          of  online-­‐information (e.g.  Goldhammer,  Naumann,  &  Pfaff,  in  preparation)
  • 9.,instrumental-­‐technological‘  approachCritisismreduces  media  use  to  its  occurrence  and  derives  competences  from  the  required  handling  of  the  respective  technologyimpede  a  critical  way  of  looking  at  the  opportunities  and  problems  of  media  technologies  reduce  media  competence  to  the  requirements  of  the  technical  system see  Pietraß  (2002,  2007)  
  • 10. especially  in   comparative  educational  research psychological  orientated  educational  researchdefinition  of  ,new  constructs‘ICILS  Study:  CIL  -­‐  Computer  and  Information  Literacycomputer  based  assessmentNEPS  (National  Educational  Panel  Study)  with  focus  on  digital  literacy  during  lifespan
  • 11. explicate the six aspects of CIL and provide some suggestions of how they may beoperationalised in the proposed ICILS instruments.F igure 1. Conceptual structure of the proposed I C I LS Computer and Information L iteracy construct Computer and information computers to investigate, create and communicate in order to participate effectively at home, at school, in the workplace and in the community. Strand 1 Strand 2 Collecting and managing Producing and exchanging information information Aspect 1.1 Aspect 2.1 Knowing about and Transforming information understanding computer use Aspect 2.2 Aspect 1.2 Creating information Accessing and evaluating information Aspect 2.3 Sharing information Aspect 1.3 Managing information!"#0.123+(44&%""5(.Collecting and managing information­‐content/uploads/examples/ICILS-­‐Detailed-­‐Project-­‐Description.pdf focuses on the receptive elements of
  • 12. But  what‘s  about  digital  literacy  in  teacher  education   in  Germany? 2  dimensions:   being  literate  and  teaching  literacy
  • 13. Education  is  a  matter  for  the  German  federal  Länder,  or  regions
  • 14. to  little  research  in  K12-­‐ teacher  education,   especially  for  digital   literacy but  (some/first)   empirical  results
  • 15. First  research  in  teacher  education,media  pedagogical  comeptence‘includemedia-­‐educationmedia-­‐didacticsmedia-­‐socializationown  media-­‐literacyschool  development  according  digital  media Blömeke  (2005)
  • 16. What  is  written  in  (general)  documents  of  teacher  education?
  • 17. initial teacher education. Inclusion  of  ICT  in  initial  education  for  teachers  in   Figure D4: Regulations on the inclusion of ICT in initial education for teachers in primary and general secondary education (ISCED 1, sand 3), 2009/10 primary  and  2 econdary  education Inclusion of ICT in the initial education of all teachers Institutional autonomySource: Eurydice.
  • 18. education target only generalist teachers. At secondary level, few countries target only specialist ICTteachers but where this is the case, the regulations usually cover more technical ICT skills such asICT-­‐related  skills  in  core  curriculum  for  initial  maintaining computer systems or creating websites. In the other countries where regulations exist,they are directed at all specialist teachers at secondary level, including specialist ICT teachers andeducation  for  teachersspecialist teachers of other subjects. Figure D5: ICT-related skills defined in the core curriculum for initial education for teachers in primary and general secondary education (ISCED 1, 2 and 3), 2009/10 Internet use Maintaining computer systems Creating websites Pedagogical issues Subject-specific training Multimedia operations Left Right Institutional Generalist Only specialist All specialist ISCED 1 ISCED 2 + 3 autonomy teachers ICT teachers teachersSource: Eurydice.
  • 19. situation  in  Germany digital  literacy  is  named  in  e.g.  in  the   standards  for  teacher  education  by  The  Standing Conference  of  the  Ministers  of  Education  and  Cultural  Affairs  of  the   Länder  in  the  Federal  Republic  of  Germany   but  mostly  general  aspects  or  in  preamles  
  • 20. content  analysis  of  teacher  ducation  documents  of   5  German  Universities 90  Documents  (e.g.  study  regulations,   university  calendars,  study  examination   documents,  ...)  from  2007-­‐2010digital  literacy  is  named  as  a  main  goal  of  teacher  educationbut  strong  focus  of  media  didactics  and  teaching  with  media  Schiefner-­‐Rohs  (2011b)  
  • 21. What  do  teacher   students  say?  literacy  in  their  study  program Schiefner-­‐Rohs,  2011
  • 22. ! topic  of  courses  in  teacher  education presentaAon  soBware  in   teaching  and  learning audiovisual  media  in   teaching  and  learning Internet  in  teaching  and   learning learning  soBware  in  teaching   and  learningmedial  impacts  for  kids  and  youth creaAon  of  media   ø  2.3  courses  during   use  of  media their  studies criAcal  literacy  /  diAgal  literacy medial  environments  of  kids  and   youth digital  games  for  kids  and   youth knowledge  of  media   structure
  • 23. existence  of  digital  teaching  and   learning  sessions  in  teacher  education   (Kleimann  et  al.,  2008,  Schiefner-­‐Rohs,  2011)! virtual  labs online  live  lectures   virtual  seminars  and  tutorates  with  virtual   cooperaAon interacAve  teaching online  learning  materials N  =  527  
  • 24. how  often  teacher  students  use  digial  media  (Kleimann  et  al.,  2008,  Schiefner-­‐Rohs,  2011) computer-­‐based  assessment E-­‐PorLolios Webbased  -­‐Trainings online  E-­‐Assessment online-­‐Courses  without  presence Wikis Weblogs E-­‐Lectures  with  slides Podcasts (very)  oBen someAmes (very)  seldom never isn‘t  integrated N  =  527  
  • 25. First  results  of  asking  students focus  of  teaching  and  learning  with   digital  media less  digital  media  during  their  study depends  on  university  teacher
  • 26. Deep  insight:  Case  Study 2  institutions  of  teacher  education   explorative  study    (see  Lamnek,  1993)   Triangulation  of  methods  (Flick,  2004a,  2008;  Treumann,  2005) Content  analysis  (N=40) Interviews  with   professors 2  Schiefner-­‐Rohs  (2011a)  
  • 27. Critical  media  literacy  mainly  is  found  in  descriptions  of  courses,  seldom  in  study  regulations university  culture differences  between  the   university  and  the  university  of   teacher  education strong  influence  of  learning   culture  in  higher  education
  • 28. Asking  faculty  staff  for  the   integration  of  teaching  and   learning  critical  media  literacy  ...  influence  of  informal  learning  and  the  engagment  of  university  teachers Schiefner  Rohs  (2011)  N=  101
  • 29. Challanges  in  teacher  education  with  the  structure  of  teacher  educationdigital  literacy  of  university  teachers,nature‘  of  teaching  digital  literacy:  near  subject,  not  stand  aloneassessment  of  digital  literacy
  • 30.  prospects more  research more  concepts  of  integration   personal  and  academic   development
  • 31. Thanks  for  your  attention Questions?Mandy  RohsUniversity  of  Duisburg-­‐EssenEducational  Media  and  Knowledge  Managementmandy.rohs@uni-­‐due.dehttp://www.2headz.ch  
  • 32. some  LiteratureGrafe,S.  (i.Dr.).  ‚media  literacy‘  und  ‚media  (literacy)  education‘  in  den  USA:  ein  Brückenschlag  über  den  Atlantik.  Erscheint  in:  H.  Moser,    P.  Grell  &  H.  Niesyto  (Hrsg.).  Medienbildung  und  Medienkompetenz.  Beiträge  zu  Schlüsselbegriffen.  München:  kopäd.  Pietraß,  M.  (2007).  Digital  Literacy  Research  from  an  International  and  Comparative  Point  of  View.  Research  in  Comparative  and  International  Education,  2(1),  1-­‐2.  Pietraß,  M.  (2010).  Digital  Literacies.  Empirische  Vielfalt  als  Herausforderung  für  eine  einheitliche  Bestimmung  von  Medienkompetenz.  In  B.  Bachmair  (Hrsg.),  Medienbildung  in  neuen  Kulturräumen  -­‐  die  deutschsprachige  und  britische  Diskussion  (S.  74-­‐84).  Wiesbaden:  VS,  Verl.  für  Sozialwissenschaften.  Schiefner-­‐Rohs,  M.  (2011).  Kritische  Informations-­‐  und  Medienkompetenz  im  Hochschulstudium.  Theoretisch-­‐konzeptionelle  Überlegungen  und  erste  empirische  Betrachtungen  am  Beispiel  der  Lehrerausbildung.  Universität  der  Bundeswehr  München,  München.Schiefner-­‐Rohs,  M.  (2001).  Verankerung  von  medienpädagogischer  Kompetenz  in  der  universitären  Lehrerbildung.  In  R.  Schulz-­‐Zander,  B.  Eickelmann,  H.  Moser,  H.  Niesyto  &  P.  Grell  (Hrsg.).  Jahrbuch  Medienpädagogik  2009.  Wiesbaden:  VS-­‐Verlag.